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[初三] 动词填空解题指导

[日期:2007-05-07]   [字体: ]

1.确定正确的时态

时态是动词填空的重点,在解题时必须慎重。确定时态可以根据情况从以下几个方面来进行。

1)根据句中的时间状语来确定时态。时间状语和时态有着极为密切的联系。我们可以参阅“时态形式与时间状语”这一节。

2)注意时态呼应。

在主从复合句中,主句谓语动词与从句谓语动词的时态是相互照应的。

①在含宾语从句的主从复合句中,如果主句是一般过去时,从句要用过去的相应时态;如果主句谓语动词是一般现在时或将来时,从句的谓语动词可根据实际情况而使用一种时态;如果从句说的是客观事实或真理,谓语动词总是用一般现在时。如:

The teacher told us the sun rises in the east.

She wanted to know if her mother liked the present.

②状语从句的时态比较复杂,我们应注意以下几点:a.主从句的时态要一致;b.主句是一般将来时或祈使句,条件状语从句或时间状语从句要用一般现在时表将来;c.表示一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行,这时从句用过去进行时,主句用一般过去时。如:

We will go to the GREat Wall if it doesn't rain tomorrow.

I met an old friend of mine when I was walking in the street yesterday afternoon.

3)根据上下文来确定时态。

有时句子没有明显的时间状语,也不能用时态呼应的规则来对照,这时就可以根据上下文内容来判断时间关系,确定时态。如:

Be quiet!He is listening to the radio.

While Mary was playing in the garden,her brother was writing in the room.

—I have bought a new dictionary.—When did you buy it?

—Please come for dinner.—Thank you but I have already had it.

2.确定语态

我们在考虑时态的同时,也要考虑语态,这样才能万无一失。当句子的主语是谓语动词动作的承受者时,用被动语态;反之用主动语态。如:

Yesterday I was told that we would have a picnic in the park.

注意:不及物动词或相当于不及物动词的短语动词(如disappear等)没有被动语态。如:

The ship has disappeared

The war broke out many years ago.

但是,“不及物动词+介(副)词”构成的短语动词其作用相当于及物动词,故有被动语态。

The children are well looked after

3.确定非谓语动词的形式

如果所给的动词在句子中不作谓语,就应该考虑用动词的非谓语动词形式。究竟选用哪种非谓语动词形式,可根据情况从以下几方面来考虑。

1)在及物动词want,hope,wish,decide,would like等动词后用不定式作宾语。如:

I hope to see you soon.

2)It is time(for sb.)to do sth.,something to eat /drink,have nothing to do等句型中要用动词不定式。如:

It's time for us to have supper now.

Would you like something to drink

3)在enjoy,finish,mind,be busy,be worth,feel like,what /how about,can't help,practise,have fun /problems的等后要用动词-ing形式。如:

A young man practised speaking English with Mr GREen.

I'm hungry.I feel like eating something.

We are going to have fun learning and speaking English this term.

They have some problems getting there.

4)使役动词(如let,make等,但get除外)及感观动词(如see, hear,watch,feel等)后要接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。在 help后面作宾语补足语时,to可有可无。注意:将其改为被动语态时,则要加上to(但let不能用于被动语态)。如:

I saw him play basketball with Jack an hour ago.

He was made to leave his hometown.

5)在see,watch,find,feel等动词后,既可以接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语,也可以接动词-ing形式作宾语补足语。前者表示动作的全过程已结束,后者表示动作的一部分正在进行。如:

—Do you often hear John sing in his room?

—Listen!Now we can hear him singing in his room.

We saw him enter the building and go upstairs.

6)在介词后面的动词常用其-ing形式作介词宾语。如:

As water is so important,we should take part in protecting our lakes,rivers,seas and oceans.

Every day I spend two hours in finishing doing my homework.

尽管有些同学时间概念记住了,谓语动词的时态和语态也确定了,但在答题时仍会出错。所以我们还应注意:

①要弄清动词的第三人称单数、过去式及过去分词的构成。

②要注意谓语动词要与主语在人称和数上保持一致。

③句子是祈使句,或在情态动词、助动词后,谓语动词要用原形。

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