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[初二] 动词(2)

[日期:2007-04-30]   [字体: ]

(三)非谓语动词

在英语语法中,掌握好动词的用法是最重要的,而非谓语动词又是动词中非常重要的一部分,由于它内容多,有些用法相似,所以不好掌握,经常被混淆用错,下面分析非谓语动词的主要用法。

1.动词不定式

动词不定式可以和助动词或情态动词一起构成谓语,又可以在句子中作宾语、宾语补足语、状语和定语等。但它毕竟是动词,具有动词的特点,它可以和自己的宾语或状语构成不定式短语。

(1)动词不定式作宾语:

He found it hard to catch up with his class.

(2)动词不定式作宾语补足语:

The teacher often tells Jim and John not to spend too much time playing video games.

Our teacher asked me to look up the new words in a dictionary.

Would you please tell Kate to give my best wishes to everybody?

(3)动词不定式作状语:

Meimei went to help Kate with her Chinese.

(4)动词不定式作定语:

He has no paper to write on.

He ran into the room to save the girl.

(5)动词不定式和疑问词连用:

Nobody knows what to do tomorrow.

We are not sure when to leave.

(6)有些动词feel,have,hear,let,make,see,watch等要求不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。例如:

Uncle Wang can make his kite fly higher in the sky.

—Did you often see him watch TV at home?

—Sometimes.

(7)有些动词aGREe,decide,fail,hope,wish等只能后接不定式。例如:

He failed to pass the English exam.

(8)有些动词既可后接不定式,也可后接动词的-ing形式,但意思不同。如go on doing sth.表示“继续做某事”,go on to do sth.表示“继续做另一件事”;stop doing sth.表示“停止做某事”,stop to do sth.表示“停下来做另一件事”;remember doing sth.表示“记得做过某事”,remember to do sth.表示“记得去做某事”;forget doing sth.表示“忘记做过某事”,forget to do sth.表示“忘记去做某事”。

They stopped to listen,but there was no more sound at all.

I usually forget to close the door,but I remembered closing it when I left yesterday.

(9)had better要求与不带to的不定式连用。例如:

We'd better have a meeting first.我们最好先开个会。

You'd better not smoke so much..你们最好不要抽那么多烟。

2.动词的-ing形式

动词的-ing形式在教学大纲中没有作要求,但在中考题中常出现,考查的类型主要有以下几种:

(1)动词的-ing形式在句中作主语。例如:

Eating too much is bad for our health.

(2)动词的-ing形式在句中作宾语补足语。例如:

When they walked along the river,they suddenly heard somebody calling for help.

She said that she felt someone smoking in the room.

One day when Edison was five years old,his father saw him sitting on some eggs.

(3)有些及物动词finish,enjoy,keep,mind等后接动词的-ing形式。例如:

Most of the children enjoy playing computer games.

—Would you mind waiting a few minutes?

—No,not at all.

He's almost finished reading the book,hasn't he?

We kept passing the ball to each other,and they began to get angry.

(4)在某些句型结构中或一些短语中,常用动词的-ing形式。如 stop sb.from doing sth.表示“阻止某人做某事”。例如:

The GREat Green Wall will stop the wind from blowing the earth away.

(四)常见情态动词的基本用法

情态动词是四类动词之一,它们用来表达说话人的语气和态度。如:命令、劝告、建议、禁止、猜测等。他们本身具有一定的意义,但不能单独作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语。它们没有人称和数的变化,其后直接跟动词原形。情态动词有can,could,may, must,have to,need,shall,should,will,would等。下面将简要叙述初中英语教材中常见的情态动词及其用法:

1.can,could,be able to

①can常用来表示能力,意为“能”,“会”。例如:

This pencil is very short,but I can still use it.

Can you answer my questions in English?你能用英语回答我的问题吗?

People can't live without air or water.

—Can you sing the song in English?

—No,I can't.

②can用来表示惊异、怀疑或推测,常用在疑问句和否定句中。例如:

What can it mean?这会意味着什么?

The story can't be true.这个故事不会是真的。

—You must be here at six tomorrow morning.

—Sorry,I can't be here so early.

③can =may,表示“请求或许可”多用于口语中,译为“可以”。例如:

Can use your broom,please?我可以用你的扫帚吗?

I'm hungry.Can I have something to eat?

—Can you mend a TV set?

—No,I can't.

④could是can的过去式,它可以表示过去的能力。但could在疑问句中,则不表示过去,而使句子变得更加委婉客气。例如:

Could you go out for a walk with me?你能和我去散步吗?

Could you tell us where the post office is,please?你能告诉我们邮局在哪儿吗?

⑤be able to和can表示“能力”时意义及用法相同,但can只有现在式和过去式两种形式,而be able to可以用于各种时态。例如:

You will be able to see her next time.下一次你就能够见到她。

He has also been able to drive a car now.现在他也会开车了。

The boy is able to draw a good horse in five minutes.

2.may

①表示推测,意为“也许”、“可能”。may表示猜测,只能用在肯定句和否定句中。例如:

Your son may be in another room.你的儿子也许在另一个房间。

Don't play with the knife.You may hurt yourself.

You can go and ask Meimei.She may know the answer.

②表示请求和允许,译为“可以”,肯定回答一般用may,而否定回答一般不用may not,而用mustn't,can't。may表示请求时,只用于主语为第一人称的一般疑问句中。例如:

May I go and play football now,please?现在我能去踢足球吗?

You may not stand on the chair.你不可以站在椅子上。

—May I watch TV now,Mum,please?

—No,you can't.

③表示祝愿。例如:

May you be happy!祝你幸福!

May she aGREe with me.希望她能同意我的要求。

④注意:在回答用may提问的问题时,一般避免用may来回答。这样不致于让人觉得过于严厉或不客气。例如:

—May I read your English story-book,please?我能看你的英语故事书吗?

—Certainly.Here you are.当然可以。给你。

—May I take the newspapers out of the reading room,please?我能把这些报纸拿出阅览室吗?

—No,you mustn't.You can read them here.不行。你可以在这里看。

3.must

①表示命令,译为“必须”,“应该”。例如:

You must come to school on time.你应当按时到校。

Everyone must finish the exercises in class.每个人必须在课堂上完成练习。

You must stop when the lights are red.

②表示肯定、推测,译为“一定”,“必定”。它表示的可能性比may要大。例如:

He must be in the teachers'office.他肯定在老师的办公室里。

She looks pale,she must be ill.她面色苍白,一定是病了。

③must用于否定句中,表示“禁止”,“不准”。例如:

Dogs mustn't be brought to school.不许把狗带到学校来。

You mustn't put your head out of the window.不准把你的头伸出窗外。

You mustn't play football in the street.It's dangerous.

④由may开头的疑问句否定回答多用mustn't,以示委婉。例如:—May we go home now?现在我们能回家吗?

—No,you mustn't.It's only three o'clock.不能。现在才三点。

⑤由must开头的句子,否定回答时多用needn't。例如:

—Must they stay in the classroom?他们必须呆在教室里吗?

—No,they needn't.They can play outside.不必。他们可以在外面玩。

—Must I return this book this afternoon?

—No,you needn't.But you must return it before supper.

⑥have to,must的用法区别。

两者表示“必须”时,可以互换,但是must多强调主观上的原因;而have(has)to则常强调由于客观需要而“不得不”做某事。试比较:

I have to finish the work at once.

Mother is out.I have to look after my little sister.妈妈出去了。我只好在家照看小妹妹。

The meeting begins at eight.You must take the early bus.会议在八点开始。你必须乘坐早班车。

4.need

need意为“需要”,常用于疑问句和否定句中,在否定句中,表示“不必做某事”或“无需做某事”。例如:

Need I help you?你需要我的帮助吗?

We needn't go there by bus.我们不必坐车去那里。

You needn't worry about your son.He will get well soon.

—Need I begin with Lesson One?

—Yes,you must.

【注意】

need既可以作情态动词,也可以作行为动词。作行为动词时,它有人称和数的变化,后面接名词、代词或带to的动词不定式,在否定句或疑问句中,则须用助动词do。例如:

He needs to see a doctor.他需要看医生。

She is doing well in her English,she doesn't need any help.她的英语学得很好,她不需要任何帮助。

They need much money now.现在他们需要很多钱。

Do you need an English-Chinese dictionary?你需要一本英汉辞典吗?

5.shall,should

①shall作情态动词,常用于主语为第一人称的疑问句,用来“征求意见”和“提问”。例如:

Shall we go and help him?我们去帮助他,好吗?

Shall I carry the bag upstairs?我要把这个袋子拿上楼吗?

②should是shall的过去时,除了作助动词表示过去将来要发生的动作外,也可以作情态动词,用来表示“义务”和“责任”,译为“应该”,此时should可以使用各种人称。例如:

I thought we should go to work today.(过去时)我以为我们今天要上班。

You should help your mother do some housework.(建议)你应当帮助母亲做一些家务事。

We should talk about the matter after school.(命令)放学后我们应当就这件事谈一谈。

6.will,would

①will作情态动词,表示“同意、允诺”。例如:

They will help you if possible.如果可能的话,他们会帮助你的。

Will you bring the chair here?你能把那个椅子搬过来吗?

②would是will的过去式,除了作助动词表示过去将来的动作外,也可用作情态动词,表示“意愿”,但语气比will委婉、客气。例如:

He asked me if I would go to see her.(过去时态)他问我是否去看望她。

What would you like for breakfast?

Would you like some bananas?(意愿)你愿意吃香蕉吗?

Nobody would make her angry.(意愿)谁都不想惹她生气。

7.习惯用语had better必须和不带to的动词不定式连用,其否定式在had better后加not。例如:

He'd better stop smoking.他最好把烟戒了。

We'd better not wait for him here.我们最好别在这里等他。

You'd better go to the cinema by bus.你最好乘公共汽车去电影院。

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