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高考同位语从句学习三要素

[日期:2019-06-25]   [字体: ]

同位语从句属复合句的重要内容,也是高考重要考点之一,学好同位语从句关键应注意下列几点:

一、理解同位语从句的含义,把握同位语从句的实质

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在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用that,whether等词引导,常放在fact,news,idea,truth,hope,problem,information等名词后面,说明该名词的具体内容。换言之,同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容上为同一关系。

例:The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.他们比赛获胜的消息很快传遍了整个学校。

析:they had won the game说明The news的全部内容,因此该句为同位语从句。

二、正确运用同位语从句的引导词,准确把握同位语从句

1.如同位语从句意义完整,应用that引导同位语从句。

例:The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross the river at once.将军下达了战士们立即过河的命令。

析:the soldiers should cross the river at once是the order的全部内容,且意义完整,因此应用that引导同位语从句。

2.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加“是否”的含义,应用whether引导同位语从句。

例:We'll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will be held on time.我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举行的问题。

析:the sports meeting will be held on time意义不完整,应加“是否”的含义才能表达the problem的全部内容,因此应用whether引导同位语从句。

3.如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加“什么时候”、“什么地点”、“什么方式”等含义,应用when,where,how等词引导同位语从句。

1:I have no idea when he will be back.

析:he will be back意义不完整,应加“什么时候”的含义才能表达idea的全部内容,因此应用when引导同位语从句。

2:I have no impression how he went home,perhaps by bike.

析:he went home意义不完整,应加“如何”的含义才能表达impression的全部内容,因此应用how引导同位语从句。

三、把握同位语从句和定语从句的区别,明确同位语从句和相似从句的界限

同位语从句和定语从句相似,都放在某一名词或代词后面,但同位语从句不同于定语从句。同位语从句对名词加以补充说明,是名词全部内容的体现,且名词和同位语从句的引导词均不在从句中作成分;定语从句对名词加以限制,是名词内容的修饰性定语,且名词和定语从句的引导词均在从句中作成分。

1:Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.(NMET2001上海)

A.while B.that C.when D.as

析:答案为B。more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities是Information的内容,且Information不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。应将该句区别于:

It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities,this is the information ____ has been put forward.

A.what B.that C.when D.as

析:答案为B。that has been put forward为information的修饰性定语,且information在从句中作主语,所以该句为定语从句。

2:She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her mouth.(MET91)

A.it B.which C.this D.that

析:答案为B。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知,该句为非限制性定语从句,先行词为a terrible noise,且它在从句中作主语。应将该句区别于:

I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly.

A.it B.which C.this D.that

析:答案为D。she is crying loudly是the terrible noise的内容,且the terrible noise不在从句中作成分,所以该句为同位语从句。

巩固性练习:

1.The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all.

A.that B.what C.why D.which

2.The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability.

A.that B.what C.which D.why

3.The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us GREatly.

A.what B.that C.why D.when

4.His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down.

A.which B.that C./D.it

5.I have no idea ____ he will start.

A.when B.that C.what D./

6.I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow.

A.if B.that C.whether D.which

7.The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him.

A.when B.which C.what D.that

8.The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late.

A.which B.whether C.that D.what

9.The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease.

A.that B.as C.of which D.which

10.He often asked me the question  ____ the work was worth doing.

A.whether B.where C.that D.when

    Keys: 1-5 AABBA   6-10 BDCAA

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