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王老师高考英语课堂30讲-复合句

[日期:2019-06-25]   [字体: ]
在高考英语试题中,复合句占有较大的比例,复习时应该注意:

    1.倡发散思维,忌单向思维,考各种从属句,常常是不同类型的连接词语正误连缀而至,如果不抓住这 一点,不从多方面思考选择,就容易以偏概全,误入歧途。

    2.弄清主从复合句中的每一个从属连接词的意思、用法、主句与从句在时态上的呼应、语气、是否需要 倒装、固定搭配及逻辑常识等。

    3.熟记句型及特殊表达形式。

    4.注意各分句之间的特点及区别。

    5.注意有些连接词的省略情况及省略后某些语序发生的变化。

    总之在做习题时,不能生搬硬套,一成不变,要全方位的思考,摸清出题者的意图,灵活机动,随着不同 的语言环境而变化。

什么是复合句:

  从句子结构上来说,句子有三种:简单句、并列句和复合句。简单句有一个主语或多个主语和一个谓语;一个主语和多个谓语。并列句是由并列连词连接的两个或多个简单句。复合句指的是含有两个或更多的主谓结构的句子,其中有一个(或更多)主谓结构充当句子的某一(些)成分,如主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、同位语等。主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句都属于复合句。

一、状语从句:

    状语从句  Adverbial Clause,从句用作状语称为状语从句。根据用途,状语从句可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、方式、让步、结果、目的等状语从句。

I. 时间状语从句 
  
时间状语从句表示时间,常用的关联词有when, until, as, after, before, once, since, as long as, whenever等等。
例: 1)  When you cross a main road, you must be  careful.
2)  He went out to play football after he had finished his homework.
3)  Wait until you are called.
4)  I can't recognize you. You are so changed since last we met.
5)  He didn't go to school until he was eleven.
You can use my house as long as you are careful.
He is so terrible once he is drunk.
I listen to the radio while I walk every evening.

II. 地点状语从句
  地点状语从句表示地点,常用的关联词有where, wherever, anywhere等。
例如:1)  Put it where you found it.
2) Sit down wherever you like.
3) Anywhere she goes, he goes too.

III.  原因状语从句
  原因状语从句表示原因或理由,常用的关联词有because, as, since, in case等。
1) I eat ice-cream so much because I like sweet food.
2) As I didn't know the way, I asked a policeman.
3) Since you won't help me, I'll ask someone else.
I'll take my raincoat in case it rains. (in case it rains = because it may rain)我将带上雨衣,以防下雨。

IV. 条件状语从句 
  条件状语从句表示真实的或现实的条件,引导从句所用的关联词有if, unless, suppose, in case(that), in the event (that), as (so) long as等等。
1) If it snows tomorrow, we will build a snowman.
You'll be late, unless you hurry.
3) Suppose we are late, what will he say? (suppose从句必须放在主句之前) 我们如果迟到了,他会说什么?
4) In the event that our team wins, there will be a party.
5) In case it rains, do not expect me.    如果下雨,就不要等我了。
6) He will do anything as(so) long as it is interesting.   只要好玩,他什么都愿意做。

V.  方式状语从句 
  方式状语从句表示动作的方式,回答How的问题,常用关联词as, as if, as though, the way(that), in the way(that)等引导,一般置于主语之后。
Do as I say. I did just as you told me.   照我说的去做。我就是照你说的去做的。
He acts as if/as though he is the owner.  他行为举止好象是这儿的主人似的。
They did it in a way that I had never seen before. 他们以我从没见过的方式行事。
I was never allowed to sing the way I wanted to. 我从未被允许用自己想用的方式唱歌。

VI.  让步状语从句 
  让步状语从句表示“虽然、尽管、即使”等概念,使句子具有对比的因素。常用的关联词有although, though, even if, even though, not that(=although…not)等,置于主语之前或后。
1) Although you feel very ill right now, this is still a common disease.
2) Though he has lived for years in London, he writes in French.
3) We intend to go U.S., even if air fares are expensive.
4) Even though fruits are good, you can't live with fruits only.
5) I'm OK now, not that I slept (although I did not sleep) very well last night.

VII.  结果状语从句       
  结果状语从句表示结果, 常由连词so…that, such(a/an)…that, so that, such that等引导,置于主语之后。
She was so frightened about the dog that she cried.
The news worried him so much that he didn't sleep at all for the whole night.
He is such a wonderful joker that you can't help laughing.
They are such wonderful players that no one can beat them.
We arrived early, so that we got good seats.
The weather was such that I couldn't go out.

VIII.  目的状语从句  
  目的状语从句表示目的,回答what for或 for what purpose的问题,常用关联词so that, in order that等引导,一般置于主语之后。目的状语从句中的谓语动词常由“情态动词+动词原形”构成。
Ships carry lifeboats so that people can escape if the ship sinks.
They wrote the notice in several languages so that foreigners could understand it.
We carved their names on the stone in order that people should always remember them.
They risk their lives so that/in order that they may support their kids.

  了解了状语从句,我们来看看例题讲解

1.I'll go with you as soon as I ____my work.

A.will finish B.shall finish C.finish D.finished

  选C.在时间、条件状语从句中,主句可能是祈使句、一般将来时或带情态动词,从句用一般现在时。如 果主句是过去将来时,从句可以用一般过去时。能够引导时间状语从句、条件状语从句的从属连接词,常见的 有:when,until(directly,unless,as long as,suppose等。如:

    (1)Unless he comes,we won't be able to go.

    (2)Suppose it goes on raining,what shall we do?

    (3)Lu Xun often said,"As long as I am alive,I shall go on studying."

2.No sooner_____the news than they rushed out into the street.

A.they heard B.they had heard C.did they hear D.had they heard

  选D.no sooner…than,hardly… when,scarcely… before表示"—…就",主句一般用过去完成时(h ad+V-ed),从句用一般过去时,如果hardly,no sooner, scarcely放句首,主谓倒装。

3.Although he is considered a GREat writer,____(MET'91)

A.his works are not widely read B.but his works are not widelyread

C.however his works are not widely read D.still his works arenot widely read

  选A.这是一个让步状语从句,主句与从句之间有一个从属连词although(though),不能再加but,howeve r,still等,但可以和yet连用。

4.No matter how hard he worked,____(84年)

A.he could not do any better B.and he could not do any better

C.so he could do any bettes D.but he could not do any better

  选A.由no matter引导的让步状语从句,其主句也不能再用but,and,so等并列连接词。

5.____he might,he failed,A.Try as B.As try C.Tried as D.As tried

  选A.为了强调让步的意义,表示出非常强烈的对照,用as或though引导的让步状语从句,从句的语序要 作部分调整,即把句子受强调的表语、状语或动词原形置于从句的句首。如果表语是单数可数名词,移置句首 时,名词前不用冠词。如:

(1)Much as I like it,I will not buy it.
(2)Child as she is,she knows a lot of English.

6.Did the two boys look so much alike____no one could tell them apart?

A.and B.that C.as D.so that

  选B.目的状语从句的表达:"主+谓+that(so that,in order that)+主+may(might,can,could,sho uldn't等)+谓"。

7.____Mr Smith is well again,he can travel.

A.Now that B.But that C.And that D.Since that

  选A.now that相当于since。表示原因状语从句的连接词常见的有because,as,since,now that,seeing that,considering that等。

8.It was____a hundred people looked lost in it.

A.so large a room that B.so large a room
C.such large a room that D.a such large room

  选A.引导结果状语从句:so+adj(adv)+that从句so+adj+a(an)+n+that从句such+a(an)+adj+n+that从句,表示"这样……(一个)……以至于……"。

9.The harder he worked,____he felt.

A.happier B.the happier C.the happy D.the happiest

  选B.the+比较级+主+谓,the+比较级+主+谓,意思是"越…… 越……"。

二、定语从句

  定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。  

  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。  
  
关系副词有:when, where, why等

1. 关系代词引导的定语从句   

  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: 
Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语) 
He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.
他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换),例如: 
They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 
那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。 
Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is GREen. 
请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:  A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.
农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)  
The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.
你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

2. 关系副词引导的定语从句  
  
  关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)when, where, why 关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用.例如: 
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。  Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 
这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2)that代替关系副词that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略.例如: 
His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 
他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。 
He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.
他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方

3. 判断关系代词与关系副词  
方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: 
This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 
I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? 
A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one
例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.  A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one答案:
例1 D,例2 A
例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.
例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.   
在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。   
而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

4. 限制性和非限制性定语从句
1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:   
This is the house which we bought last month.   
这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)   
The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.
这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:   Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year.
查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。   
My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 
我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。  
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching.
这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:   
He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which GREatly upsets me.
他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。   
Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation.
液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

  说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

5. 介词+关系词
1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。
2)that前不能有介词。
3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。 
This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 
This is the house where I lived two years ago. 
Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 
Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

6. as, which 非限定性定语从句   
  由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。  
As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.  
The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.  

典型例题 1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.
A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he 
答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。
2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 
答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。
3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.
A. that B. which  C. as  D. it 
答案B.   

as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: 
(1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。 
(2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。  在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。
As 的用法

例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。  
 I have got into the same trouble as he (has).

例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常含有'正如'的意思。  
As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.  
As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 
As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

7. 先行词和关系词二合一  
1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.   (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替) 
2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.   (what 可以用all that代替)

8. what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever
1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything   What you want has been sent here.   Whatever you want makes no difference to me.
2) who= the person that  whoever= anyone who  
(错)Who breaks the law will be punished.  
(错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear.  
(对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished.  
(对)Who robbed the bank is not clear.

3) that 和 what    
  当that引导定语从句时 ,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从句, 用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。  
I think (that) you will like the stamps.  
What we need is more practice.

9. 关系代词that 的用法
1)不用that的情况  
a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。   
(错) The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.  
b) 介词后不能用。    
We depend on the land from that we get our food.(错)    
改为:We depend on the land from which we get our food.
We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况  
a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。  
b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。  
c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。    
d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。  
e) 先行词既有人,又有物时,只用that。
例如:  All that is needed is a supply of oil.  
所需的只是供油问题。 
Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.  
那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。
   

1.She heard a terrible noise,____brought her heart into ber mouth.(MET'91)

A.it B.which C.this D.that

  选B.在非限定性定语从句中,关系代词用which不能用that。

2.He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten wiondows, most of____hadn't cleaned for at least a y ear.(MET'90)

A.these B.those C.that D.which

  选D.如果选A、B、C,整个句子不符合语法要求,因为有一个"逗号",不是并列句,因此只能是一 个非限定性定语从句,在非限定性定语从句中关系代词一般用which。

3.His parents wouldn't marry anyone____family was poor.(MET'88)

A.of whom B.whom c.of whose D.whose

  选D.因为whose作family的定语。

4.Finally the thief handed in everything____he had stolen to the  police.(MET'87)

A.after B.what C.whatever D.that

  选D.因为A、B、C不能引导定语从句。先行词everything,关系代词that在从句中作宾语。当先行词 是不定代词all,anything,nothing,everything,something等,关系代词只能由that引导。

5.All____is needed is a supply of oil.(MET'89)

A.the thing B.that C.what C.which

  选B.All作先行词,关系代词由that引导。

6.In fact the Swede did not understand the three questions____were asked in French.(85年 )

A.where B.who C.in which D.which

  选D.question是先行词,在从句中作主语,所以应用which引导。

7.The man____talked to you just now is an engineer.(80年)

A.who B.where C.which D.what

  选A.先行词是man。在从句中作主语,所以选who。

8.The word"write"has the same pronunciation____the work"right". (84年)

A.of B.as C.to D.from

  选B.先行词中含有such,the same时,或先行词被such,the same修饰时, 关系代词用as引导。

9.Watch the girl and her dog____are crossing the bridge.

A.which B.who C.they D.that

  选D.当先行词含有"人"和"物"时,关系代词用that。

10.This dictionary,a few pages____are missing,is of no use.

A.among which B.of which C.which D.in which

  选B.dictionary是先行词,which是关系代词,a few pages of which(diciotnary)。

11.You may take____book you like.

A.which B.only c.whichever D.what

  选C.复合关系代词本身兼有先行词。whichever=anything that,whatever=anything that,whoever=any one who,whomever=anyone whom,whosever=anyone whose。

12.This is the best dictionary____I've ever bought.

A.with which B.that C.which D.when

  选B.先行词是dictionary,因为先行词前有最高级、序数词、only,very,any 等修饰时,关系代词用tha t。

13.I still remember the day____I first came to Beijing.

A.which B.that C.when D.where

  选C.先行词the day,在定语从句中作状语,所以选when。当先行词是时间名词或地点名词时,关系词选 用when或where,that或which,主要取决于在定语从句中所作成份,如果作宾语,用that或which,作状语用wh en或where。

如:

(1)I still remember the days that/which we spent in the countryside.
先行词是the days,spent是及物动词,that/which作spent的宾语。

(2)This is the place where I lived three years ago.
先行词是place,lived是不及物动词,where在从句中作状语。

(3)This is the place that/which we visited three years ago.
先行词是place,visited是及物动词,that/which在从句中作宾语。

14.____,Charles Dickens was an English writetr.

A.It's knownn to all B.It's known that C.We all know D.As isknown to all

  选D.as引出非限定性定语从句,表示"正如……那样”。类似的还有:asyou know,as you see,as can be known,as has been pointed out,as is known to all等。

15.I don't like the way____you laughed at her.

A.which B.in that C.where D.that

  选D.先行词是the way,表示方式,可用that(可省)或in which来引导一个定语从句。如果先行词是时 间或原因,也可用that(可省)或when或why来引导定语从句。如:

    (1)This was the reason that/why he was late yesterday.

    (2)This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.

三、名词性从句:

  在句子中充当主语、宾语、表语与同位语的句子分别叫做主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句, 这些统称为名词性从句。

(一)主语从句
  在复合句中用作主语的从句叫主语从句。

  A 为了强调主语从句的内容,可将从句置于句首
  That you are leaving is a pity.
  你要走,真遗憾。
  What matters is how you live.
  重要的是你如何生活。
  Where he lives is not clear.
  他住哪儿不清楚。
  Who will stay makes no difference.
  谁留下来都一样。  

  连词that引导的主语从句位于句首时,that不可以省,反意问句用it。
  That he has lost his watch is not true, is it?
  他手表丢了不是真的,是吗?
 
  Whether the football game will be played depends on the weather.
  足球比赛是否举行将视天气而定。

  B 大部分主语从句都可以用it作形式主语

  为了保持句子平衡,主语从句常用it作形式主语,将主语从句后置。用it作形式主语的主语从句结构有如下几种:
  1、It is + 名词 + that从句

  It's a pity that we can't go.
  很遗憾我们不能去。
  It is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.
  英语正在被人们接受为一种国际语言,这是一个事实。
  It is no wonder that he is not hungry; he has been eating sweets all day.
  难怪他不饿,他整天在吃糖果。

  2、It is + 形容词 + that从句
  It is certain that she will do well in her exam.
  毫无疑问她考试成绩会很好。
  It is probable that he told her everything.
  很可能他把一切都告诉她了。
  Is it true that the scientist will give us a lecture next week?
  下周那位科学家将给我们作报告是真的吗?

  3、It + 动词 + that从句
  It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all.
  艾丽丝似乎不来参加晚会。
  It happened that I was out that day.
  碰巧我那天外出了。   (= I happened to be out that day.)

比 较
  It is reported that there was a fire in the supermarket last night.
  据报导超市昨晚失火了。(主语从句)
  As is reported, there was a fire in the supermarket last night.
  据报导超市昨晚失火了。(定语从句) 
 
  4、It is + 过去分词 + that从句
  It is said that Mr. GREen has arrived in Beijing.
  据说格林先生已经到了北京。
  It is reported that China has sent another man-made earth satellite into orbit.
  据报道中国又成功地发射了一颗人造地球卫星。

必背
  用形式主语it引导的主语从句相当多,有些已形成固定的语法和译法。常见的有:
  It is said that... 据说…… 
  It is reported that...  据报导……
  It is well known that...  众所周知…… 
  It is announced that... 据宣布……
  It is believed that...  人们相信…… 
  It is thought that...  人们认为……
  It is understood that...  自不待言…… 
  It must be pointed out that...  必须指出……
  It must be admitted that...  必须承认……   
 

其他情况
  It doesn't matter whether she will come or not.
  她是否来这无关紧要。
  It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting.
  我们在哪里开会毫无区别。
  It suddenly occurred to her that she had forgotten to lock the door.
  她突然想到她忘记锁门了。

  当that引导的主语从句出现在疑问句中时,宜用it作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。
  Is it possible that they may complete the task ahead of time?
  他们有可能提前完成任务吗?
  Does it matter much that he won't be able to come tomorrow?
  他明天来不了很要紧吗?

  当主语从句出现在感叹句中时,宜用it作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。
  How strange it is that the students are so quiet!
  学生们这么安静真奇怪!
  What a shame it is that you cannot stay for dinner!
  你不能留下来吃饭多可惜呀!

  连接代词what, whoever, whatever, whichever等引导的主语从句不宜用it作形式主语。
  Is what he told us really true?
  他所告诉我们的的确是真的吗?
  Whichever of you want to come to our party will be welcome.
  你们中任何想来参加我们晚会的人都欢迎。

  C  使用虚拟语气的主语从句

  在It is suggested, ordered, requested, insisted, etc. + that从句中,谓语部分用should + 动词原形,should常被省略。(详见第3章虚拟语气)
  It is suggested that we (should) do the experiment a second time.
  有人建议我们再做一次实验。

  在It is important, natural, necessary, etc. + that从句中,谓语部分常用should + 动词原形,should常被省略。
  It is important and necessary that we (should) keep the balance of nature.
  我们要维持生态平衡,这是重要而且必不可少的。

  在It is funny, strange, surprising, a pity, a shame, no wonder, etc. + that从句中,有时谓语部分用should + 动词原形,来表达说话者的感情色彩,此时should也可省略。
  It is a pity that you (should) miss such a good chance.
  真遗憾你竟然失去这么好的机会。
 
(二)宾语从句

  宾语从句 The Object Clause,在复合句中作主句的宾语,它属于名词性从句。它可以作主句谓语动词的宾语,也可以作介词的宾语。宾语从句以从句的句式来决定连接词。

宾语从句有四步曲
连接词:   (也叫引导词)
语序:    从句的词序用陈述语序(主+ 谓)
时态:    主句的时态如果是过去时,从句的时态应以过去时为基础作相应的变化。
人称:    要根据句中的意义作相应的变化

连接词(引导词)
从属连词 that ,if ,whether
连接代词 who, whom, whose, which, what                     
连接副词 when ,where ,how ,why
1.如果陈述句作从句,连接词用that,在口语和非正式语体中常可省略that 。We know (that) there are two kinds of sports.
Mother thought (that) they should have a talk with Patrick.
He decided (that) he was not going to say anything about it.
She knew (that) the teacher would change the score.

2.特殊疑问句作从句,就用原来的特殊疑问词
Which class are you in?
The headmaster asked me which class I was in ? 
Can you tell me which class you are in ?
He told us how he had got the information .
They wanted to know who would be their English teacher next term.
3.一般疑问句作从句,连词用if或whether   在选择疑问句只用whether,记住这一结构:whether … or not 。
I don't know whether / if they have decided on the date of the meeting.
I wonder whether / if  he can come on time. 
No one knows whether the stories about UFOs are true or not. 
John asked me whether I would accept the job or not.

时态的变化
1.如果从句动作与主句动作同时发生,从句用一般过去时或过去进行时。   
The Professor said (that) the students were having an exam.
Tom told me (that) he was watching the foot-ball match
2.当从句动作发生在主句动作之前,从句要用过去完成时。
We found (that)the train had left.
When I got the shop, the shop owner said (that)  they had sold all their bread.
He told me  ( that )  he had got three film  tickets.
3.当从句动作发生在主句动作之后,从句要用过去将来时。
He said (that) the APEC meeting would take place next week.
I have not decided (that) what events I would enter for.
We all aGREed (that) he would win the prize in the contest.
4.当从句表示客观事实或真理时,其时态不受主句谓语的影响,而用一般现在时。
The teacher said (that) the sun rises in the east.
Now we all know( that) the earth turns around the sun. But in the past ,people didn' t know(that) the earth turns around the sun.

时态的变动
1. 从现在时间推移到过去时间:
  一般现在时  ——     一般过去时
  现在进行时  ——    过去进行时
  现在完成时  ——    过去完成时
  现在完成进行时  ——   过去完成进行时
2. 从过去时间推移到过去的过去时间
  一般过去时  ——     过去完成时
  过去完成时  ——     过去完成时
3. 从将来时间推移到过去将来时间
  一般将来时   ——     一般过去将来时

宾语从句及直接引语变为间接引语的用法
注意宾语从句中的各种引导词的用法以及时态的变化;注意用间接引语结构来引用某人的话,这时宾语从句中语序、人称代词要作相应的变化。
1.时态的变动:He said,"I'm going home."
He said (that) he was going home.  
 
Jack said ,"Peter,I came to return you the dictionary."
Jack told Peter (that) he had come to return him the dictionary.

2.代词的变动:
"I have lost my bike,"he said.
He said (that) he had lost his bike.
He said to me,"I don’t like you."
He told me (that) he didn't like me.
The boy said,"I'll call again in the afternoon."
The boy said (that) he would call again in the afternoon.

3.时间状语的变化
now——then
today——that day
this week——that week
yesterday——the day before
last week——the week before
tomorrow——the next day
next week——the next week
ago ——before

4.指示代词和地点状语作相应的变化this——that
these——those
here——there
come——go

  使用宾语从句要注意的问题在think, believe, suppose,  expect等动词所跟的宾语中,如果从句谓语是否定的,一般要将否定词移到主句谓语上,而将从句宾语变为肯定形式。
I don't think he has time to  play football with you. 我想他没有时间和你踢足球。
I don't suppose it is the rush hour yet. 我估计现在未到(交通)高峰时间。

  在 hope ,believe ,suppose ,guess,  think 等动词以及“ I'm afraid ” 等表达法的后面,可用 so 代替一个宾语从句,该宾语从句通常是上文提到的一件事。“Do you  think we will have good weather?”     “I hope so.”    “你认为我们会有好天气吗?” “我希望如此。”

  其否定形式可用上述动词的否定式,或用“not”代替“so”。
I don't believe so.     ( 或:I believe not.)
I'm afraid not. (hope 常用I hope not.)

(三)表语从句

  表语从句放在连系动词之后,充当复合句中的表语。

A 可接表语从句的连系动词
  可接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, seem, sound, appear等。
  China is no longer what she used to be.
  今日的中国不再是过去的中国了。
  The question remains whether they will be able to help us.
  问题还是他们能否帮我们。
  At that time, it seemed as if I couldn't think of the right word anyhow.
  当时,我似乎怎么也想不出一个恰当的字眼来。 


B  as, as if / though引导的表语从句
  He looked just as he had looked ten years before.
  他看起来还与十年前一样。
  It sounds as if someone is knocking at the door.
  听起来好像有人在敲门。

C  because, why引导的表语从句

  That's because he didn't understand me.
  那是因为他没有理解我。 (That's because...强调原因)
  That's why he got angry with me.
  那正是他对我生气的原因。 (That's why...强调结果)

  what引导的主语从句表示结果或名词reason作主语时,后面的表语从句表示原因时要用that引导,不宜用because。
  The reason why I was sad was that he didn't understand me.
  我难过的原因是他没有理解我。 

D 使用虚拟语气的表语从句

  在表示建议、劝告、命令含义的名词后的表语从句,谓语动词需用"should+动词原形"表示,should可省略。常见的词有:advice, suggestion, order, proposal, plan, idea等。
  My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow.
  我的建议是我们明天一早就出发。
  His proposal was that they (should) challenge the other classes to a friendly competition.
  他的提议是挑战别的班级进行一场友谊竞赛。
 
(四)同位语从句

  同位语从句用于对前面的名词作进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容。同位语从句一般由that引导,但也可以由whether以及连接代词和连接副词引导。

A 同位语从句一般跟在名词的后面
  同位语从句一般跟在名词fact, hope, idea, news, doubt, suggestion, information, opinion, decision, discovery, truth, promise, statement, problem, rule等后面。
  They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick.
  对你生病这件事,他们都很焦虑。
  Where did you get the idea that I could not come?
  你在哪儿听说我不能来?
  We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.
  到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。
  There is no doubt that we will win.
  毫无疑问我们会赢的。  

  当含有同位语从句的主句谓语部分过短时,可以把谓语动词提前,使同位语从句与名词隔开,以避免头重脚轻的现象。
  Word came that Mr President would come and inspect our school himself.
  有消息说总统先生将亲自来视察我们学校。 

B 使用虚拟语气的同位语从句
  在一些表示“建议、命令、要求”的名词后的同位语从句中,谓语动词用"should + 动词原形",should可省略。
  This is our only request that this (should) be settled as soon as possible.
  尽快解决这个问题,这是我们惟一的请求。
  He made the suggestion that we (should) go by train.
  他建议我们坐火车去。 

1.Can you make sure____the gold ring?(MET'90)

A.where Alice had put B.where had Alice put
C.where Alice has put D.where has Alice put

  选C.在宾语从句中,须用陈述句自然语序(即疑问词+主语+谓语)。主句是现在时,从句也亦用相应 的一类时态,现在完成时。

2.These photographs will show you____(MET'89)

A.what does out village look like B.what our village looks likeC.how

does our village look like D.how our village looks like

  选B."show"后面接一个宾语从句,A,C语序不合,D答案中的how是副词,不能作like的宾语。

3.They want to know____do to help us.(MET'88)

A.what can they B.what they can C.how they can D.how can they

选B.know后面接一个宾语从句,A,D语序不合,C答案中的how是副词,不能作do的宾语。

4.They have no idea at all____.(MET'87)

A.where he has gone B.where did he go
C.which place has he gone D.where has he gone

  选A.根据宾语从句语序。

5.Can you tell me____?(85年)

A.Who is that gentleman B.that gentleman is who
C.who that gentleman is D.whom is that ge ntleman

  选C.在宾语从句中that gentleman作主语,who作表语。

6.The old gentleman never fails to help____is in need of help.

A.whom B.who Cwhoever D.whomever

  选C.whoever=anyone who。如:

(1)You may do whatever(anything that) you like.

(2)Return the book to whosever(anyone whose)name is on it.

(3)You had better see the men for yourself and choose whichever(any one of them that) you like.

7.____comes back first is supposed to win the prize.

A.Those who B.Anyone C.Whoever D.The one who

  选C.Whoever=anyone who。A主谓不一致,B句子结构不正确,D无让步意味。

8.The news____we had won in the match excited us all.

A.that B.where C.which D.X

  选A.We had won in the match就是the news 的具体内容,同位语从句中的连词that,尽管不作任何成份,但不能省去。

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