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二月二的英文简介Briefing February 2

[日期:2008-02-07]   [字体: ]
[Briefings] February 2
    
February 2, the traditional Chinese folk festivals. Prevalent in most parts of the country, Miao, Zhuang, Manchu, Dong, Li, yu, Buyi, Hezhen, Ewenki and other ethnic minorities also have this section. This section customs activities more, North Korea has spent Festival, Ta-Qing Festival, pick Levin Festival, Chun LONG Festival, Tsing Lung Festival, the dragon called on the rise. Due to the Lunar New Year when early February 2, it said. This custom has been documented in Tang Dynasty, Bai Juyi "February 2," Poetry: "Dark February 2 Xinyu, a grass teeth vegetables 1:00 Health. Qingshan fine MA young people, the first cross-word line." At that time, and After the civil foot with a knife, 100 Valley, melons and other fruits, seeds, fruit and other wealth of welcome asked efforts, and pick vegetables, Ta-Qing, Fu Ying and other activities. Yuan for the "Year of China Ji-li spectrum": "Ta-Qing Festival on February 2, outbound tours were tough gun powder Sijiao.….", Wang Hao "wide spectrum • Qunfang days spectrum" Reply "Hanmo mind": "Luoyang customs, to February 2 for the flower festival Lang, Shishu play, and pick vegetables for the festival. "After that, on February 2 and has appeared many long practices, such as spread-gray primer, Fu Lung, smoked avoid pest Scorpion, shaving the lead, such as longan bogey Acupuncture custom section, it said the rise of the dragon. Qing Dynasty "-House-set": "…… to (February) on the 2nd for Chun LONG Festival, Weiwu such as ash from stove-397, the fine-sounding name Reply Qian Longsheng, strokes Fuxiang also." Additionally, there are Changcheng and try to plow, fried scorpion beans, wearing bottle, the festival dragon king, King of land, depletion of high Mei, married women living spring, a distributor of custom T, and other activities. Buyi to February 2 for three days, the main land worship God. Festive day, and everyone slaughter of chickens King ancestors, and to eat two color (black and white) glutinous rice, the land God bless Quanzhai pray for peace. There are many on that day-long activities, the rise of the dragon said. February 2-emergence of the custom, was found as early as Liu Dong Ming, Wilson was "slightly Teikyo • Volume II features Spring Field": "February 2, Long said the rise of the New Year festival take more than cakes, smoked-kang, said Kaoru ChonGREn that Reply Lung, worms also fail. "along its customs still the Qing Dynasty. Fu Cha Dun Shung "Yanjing mind at the age": "February 2, and the section of the ancient also. Calls for a rise of Dragon. Solar eclipse is that the cake, Professor Moon cakes, and fresh face to that of Gracilaria lemaneiformis surface. Gui stop Zhenxian, Lombok also fear injury. "dragon is China's ancient culture of the status of outstanding Shenwu, is the auspicious of the more dominant Hua-Yu is the wind. Popular cloud "Long days do not rise does not rain", the rise means that the cloud-to-rain, and world cross-tai, a rain cloud-everything is reproductive conditions. Also, that the ancient dragon scales insects The Essence, 100 pest long, the dragon is a pest Fucang 100. Early February when spring returns to the land, farming at the beginning of the 100 insects is a sting, the itch for action, is to help people to have the lead, with landmarks, shaving leading move, another fresh-skin, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Dragon Seed, Professor Moon cake is vulgar, and stopping injections, such as grinding bogey taboo.

[Origin] February 2
        Minyan said: "February 2, Lung rise." Before and after the first two days of Lunar New Year in February is one of the 24 Solar Terms Jingzhe. It is said that after the winter Eye of the Dragon, to this day, the Spring Thunder was rumbling woke up, the sky will rise. So the ancients said Chun LONG for the first two days of Lunar New Year Festival in February, leading Festival, also known landmarks or section. Therefore, people have to this day festival Longshen Shuipan rivers. "The National at the age of custom-Shouchun mind": "early February 2, incense Shuipan to Longshen festival." As everyone knows, the dragon is the totem of the Chinese nation faith since ancient times. Therefore, we are proud to claim: the Chinese language. For thousands of years, people with the dragons and mysterious as the mascot. "February 2"-day rise, it has naturally become an important folk festivals, many practices are more concerned with the dragon. In fact, "February 2, Lung rise" and said that the ancient astronomy. Ancient China used to express Ershibaqi moon and stars in the sky position and judgement season. Ershibaqi the angle, Kang, serious procedural, the heart, tail, Kei seven places form a complete dragon-shaped constellation, Spica like dragon's angle. Each spring since February, when the evening star from Long Kok appeared on the horizon in the east, it said "the dragon raises its head." February 2 Chun LONG long festival. Left many customs. Ming Shen Bang "Wan's journal" Zhongyun: "February Reply Lung, smoked 100 insects.…… Villagers with gray cloth to the outside euphemism home kitchen, convolution / water tanks, called primers Longhui. Use Miantan pancake. smoked bed reinforce the 100 Health insects do not. "," History of Ming Palace, "set:" early on the 2nd…… date of the home millet cake, the fried, or surface and thin, to share pancake, smoked fine-sounding name pest. "Fu Review GUO Chong Qing Dynasty in the" Ching-year-old in mind when, "also said:" February 2,…… people today called for the dragon raises its head. who is the solar eclipse that of Professor Moon cakes, fresh face, that The Longxumian. Gui stop Zhenxian, Lombok also fear injury. "one of the practice has been followed so far. The middle of the 1980s, and remains in the vicinity of the North Henan Shumi eating customs. February 2 morning, millet each and every household fried rice cakes, and the masses known cakes, spread with such songs: "February 2, fried rice cake, some small fire, burning slow point, do not burn the老公公beard. "At noon are eating" old Longbu eggs. " Corn is commonly known as molting Mega-millet noodles. In fact, people are concerned about the "Dragon payable to" carry out various forms of commemoration, and the fundamental cause is related to agricultural production. As the first ballad that says: "February 2, Lung rise, large warehouses full, Kokura flow." Because February is the season of sowing crops. In the scientific underdevelopment of the times, the people have, through various activities, Mr Long placed a blessing, bless favorable weather, the strong desire of bumper harvest. Also popular among the people in such a Dayoushi: "February 2, Lung rise, the emperor farmland Hill Ganniu; Niangniang Palace is to deliver meals, when the minister of North Korea lost. Spring plowing Jiayun rate world, autumn bumper harvest of peace." Court I rate Manchao participate in spring plowing Minister is well demonstrated spring plowing important ensure that the farming season is not missed. In the north, February 2, also known Lung rise, also known as Chun LONG Festival. In the south called Ta-Qing Festival Originally known pick vegetables section. Some from the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese people have the "February 2," customs. According to records, and the origins of this phrase on ancient astronomy and star running awareness of the agricultural cycle. Why should the "February 2," Long before the rise? Lunar New Year in February because enter Zhongchun season, then rose yang, and the recovery of vegetation initiative, farmers will spring plowing, planting, and much-needed soil moisture, retain moisture. Then if God rainfall, it was too valuable, it is "your spring, such as oil," said. From the cycle that is in early February, "rain", "Jingzhe", "spring equinox" between, this is a need both rainwater, and there may be a period of rain, people hope that through prayer of the dragon to achieve rainfall Objective. Why is the dragon "rise"? Since early February in a panic around the pad, a winter Zhefu the various animals and restore vitality to the activities. Long rise, and also means that the action of the Dragon, it is necessary to fulfil its responsibilities as rainfall. However, this argument is generally on the "February-lung rise" is usually explained, easily understood. But for the "Dragon rise" is the interpretation of ancient astronomy, which are often ignored. The ancients thought that the earth is not moving, is the sun in sports. As early as the Spring and Autumn Period or even earlier, people put in the sun between the anniversary of the star trajectory as a circle, known as the ecliptic. Reuse some of the stars of this circle is divided into 28 sub-formed 28 range, as Ershibaqi. "Places" that residence. If you look at the operation of the moon, it is basically a day-一宿, 28 places to live End rotation, in about a month, so "places." According to this 28 places and podcasts deuce four directions, each position will be seven places. This 28 places, from a name they gave. In the East in seven places were called: Kok, Kang, serious procedural, the heart, tail, Kei, they constitute a group called the East Cang Long. Spica symbol of the Long Tau Kok, is neck-neck is serious procedural dragon's chest places, the places is the dragon's belly, heart places the heart of the Dragon, tail places, Kei Lung places is the tail. In winter, this Canglong Subduction seven places are on the horizon, they can not see beyond the evening. To early February, dusk came, from Spica appeared on the horizon in the east. Then the whole body Canglong Subduction also below the horizon, Spica is only beginning, the Long said the rise. "Things" in the interpretation of the "Dragon" character, said: "Long, long scale insects. You can be that the fine could be huge, long to short to. Spring equinox and the impossible, Autumnal Equinox and latent edge." Are referring to this Canglong 7 of the lurking places in the sky change is not really a dragon in the transformation of animals. "Spring equinox and the impossible" means the period of spring equinox, Spica beginning to appear in the sky, beginning Oriental Cang Long Tau Kok, which is the dragon raises its head.
[Development] February 2
        Chinese dragon worship of the ancient faith has been a continuation of the Long regarded as the rain god animals increasingly clear, "Tso" Huangong five years, said: "Dragon and Yu now," Long said after Jingzhe to reappear, Then pray for rain to be held in the worship. Warring States at the geography, mythology book "The Book of Mountains and Seas," also said, Dragon Inn in the South, "the South is wet" and candle dragon "is not potable not sleep till the storm is the depletion", which is often arouse the storm. As can be imagined-in the clouds, so superstition can bring the auspicious dragon, the world will be able to come to a piece of the imperial emperor, the emperor as a result of the true sons of the dragon. Directly with the image of the dragon Qiuyu activities at the earliest records, found in the Western Han Dong Zhongshu's "Annals Fan Lu." Qiuyu dragon mentioned in the activities. In the Han Dynasty Stone Reliefs also engraved with the "show -" The dance scene. All these can be seen as the future generations playing the beginning of the dragon. Tangchaoren have the first two days of February as a special day, saying it was "Towards prosperity" day on this day to eat "Towards rich fruit" is eating some snacks foods. On this day the Song Dynasty court also special events. Song carefully "Wulin old" account of the Southern Song Dynasty, the first two days of February of this Suitengumae "pick vegetables," the Royal Banquet activities. At the banquet, in some small Hu (big mouth on the end of the tank) in the cultivation of lettuce and other fresh vegetables, to write their names in the Sibo, the pressure on Hu, let you guess. According to guess the outcome of a reward and punishment. This activity is a "child adopters", are entertainment, at that time, "the palace亦多validity of your Di." However, when the Tang and Song dynasties, these "February 2" and did not "Dragon payable to" link. To the Yuan dynasty, February 2 clearly is the "Dragon rise." "On-Chi" in the description of the customs Yuandadu mentioned, "February 2, that the long rise." On this day people prevalence of eating noodles, called "Longxumian"; to Luo Bing, called "Professor Moon"; if dumplings, known as the "exert." In short, depending on the location of the dragon named.
[Legend] February 2
       Proverbs "February 2, Lung rise," Commissioner legend in ancient times long spell of drought in the region does not rain, the Jade Emperor orders went to the East China Sea dragons sowing rain. Dragons fun, a drilling river no longer out. There is a man on the cliff mining to the "Xianglong water," stirred Hunhe River water. Dragons from the Red River head contest with the youngster, dragons were defeated, but sowing rain. In fact, the so-called "dragon raises its head" is a dormant, 100 insects began regained consciousness. So saying, "February 2, Lung rise, scorpions, centipedes are outcrop.", "February 2," another argument Jiaochun Dragon Festival. Xu Shen's "things" record: "dragon scales in the long and can be prescribed You can be fine giant will be a long short spring equinox impossible, Autumnal Equinox and latent edge." This is probably to "Chun LONG Festival "at the earliest documented practices. Legend has it that when the Emperor Wu Zetian, the Jade Emperor ordered it to the world within three years while rainfall. But Secretary of the Yulong could not hold Tianhe affected people starving and secretly drop a heavy rain, the Jade Emperor that will be followed by the Secretary palm Tianhe lay Suitengumae Yulong, the pressure in a big mountain below. Yamashita also a landmark legislation, wrote: Longwang rainfall committed Regulation days, when the centuries by human crimes. To re-Tang Lingxiao Court, unless the beans when flowering. Dragon King to save people, look around for the flowering of beans. By the second year of the first two days of February this day, people are Fanshai golden corn seed, suddenly thought, this corn as the beans, fried Kailehua, is not the bean flowers? So every household Popcorn, and the incense in the courtyard set for the "flowering of the beans", the Dragon King, and the Jade Emperor to see. Longwang people in the know that this is to save it, to the Jade Emperor cried loudly: "The flowering of the beans and let me out!" Jade Emperor saw the earth every household Douhua open courtyard, but Chuanyu, Chao Longwang to Heaven, continue to human-cloth rain clouds. Since then, civil formed a habit, every February 2 this day, people Popcorn, but also the Chaodou. Adults and children also say: "February 2, Lung rise, large warehouses full, Kokura flow." Some places in the yard with ash spread into a kitchen big circle, cereals, grains, sick or in the middle, known as the "fight tun "or" fill positions. " I wish that the intention is bumper harvest, warehouse tun Yingman. Festival, the food generally around with the name "dragon" of the title. Eat eat dumplings called "Long Ear" eat eat Chunbing called "Professor Moon"; eat eat noodles called "Gracilaria lemaneiformis" eat eat rice called "Dragon Seed" eat eat wonton called "longan."
[Folklore] February 2
        After the Yuan dynasty on the "February-lung payable to" all kinds of folk activities of the records will be more up. It is also called the day leading this section or section Chun LONG Qinglong Festival. Late Qing Dynasty "Yanjing-year-old in mind when," said: "February 2…… people today called for the dragon raises its head. Solar eclipse is that the cake, Professor Moon cakes, and fresh face to that of Longxumian. Gui stop Zhenxian, Lombok also fear injury. "At this time not only eat noodles Qibing, women do not parade Zhenxianguo fear of harm to the dragon's eyes. "Liaoning in the Record" was recorded at the local folk February 2, said: "February 2, commonly known as the dragon raises its head. Chen Qi pole to knock beam, that the knock on the lead, means Long stung from the Army, the build, nearly Jingzhe period. rough rice farmers to make a cake and Man and the first for breakfast. women as a result of child剃头child, covered from the rise of the Long Yi-yun. "it is the folk in Liaoning Province, early use percussion beam Changgan , Long awakened. Also produced some pasta to eat. February 2-emergence as an ancient folk festivals, China has now basically from the modern life dilute out. However, we should also recognize that, "February 2-rise," some cultural connotations, such as the ancients the dragon worship, "the dragon raises its head" in ancient astronomy on the materialistic interpretation and so on, is still a research value. The first two days of Lunar New Year in February, is a traditional festival in Huaian civil one, called "dragon raises its head", also known as the "locomotive section." "February 2-rise, and everyone Shaving leading man." Huaian civil old "money money,剃头New Year." Before the Spring Festival剃头Barber to February 2, has been more than a month, it is necessary剃头Barber of times. February 2-rise is Jixiangruyi days, over time, formed a February 2剃头practices. "February 2-rise, and everyone shaving children first" is also for this reason that admitting剃头Geely in the middle of the "Dragon", called Shaving "dragon" first, to distinguish between the剃头other time, some girls election Erkong, wear this. In addition, parents of this election, people send their children to school to study. "February 2, and everyone others to her daughter." Old, the first month not to the bride doors, daughter-in-law do not go home, not the first month availability. At the same time there are "married the damsel day of the first month of lights can not see her parents, her parents saw the lights father-in-law died," said a superstition, the first month in which an unmarried daughter are not allowed to go home. More than a month of time, the Maiden to Mother, mother to the Maiden, to February 2, the first month has not only already, and also Jixiangruyi day, so each daughter back home have access. "February 2, as far as beam, scorpions, entertainment clams nowhere possession." That day, the offerings left by the New Year at the candles, according to beam and the wall to eliminate flooding pests. In addition, on this day, the children use chopsticks stem Issidae knock, knock-边说: "February 2, knocking Issidae forks, 10 nine blind mice." Knock Jiuzhong with chopsticks said: "February 2, knocking Jiuzhong, 10 Waterloo Waterloo rats nine empty "in order to Reppellent rodent control. White paper to write the "February 2, straight into the various insects and ants" and "Danqu Bang", "straight into the various pest ants" to the inverted, and then paste it into a Zhuotui or Chuangjiao in order to avoid insects ants. "February 2, Lung rise over the dun, dun small flow," paintings by Jinghui tun or grain silos, or at the gate, with the size ranging from Jinghui painting circle, symbolizing the large circular to small round, prayers for good harvests, this is also a folk custom. February 2, there are some New Year's Eve Guoba cannibalism and women Jiyongzhenxian practices. Long said the rise when moving Zhenxian, the dragon's eyes will hurt. February 2, it is said that the father-in-law's birthday land, "Land Festival" for the father-in-law to the land "warm life," and some local organizing the "Land" custom: everyone chip birthday congratulations for the land God, God burning incense offerings, knocking gongs and drums, setting off firecrackers, after the founding of this vulgar gradually weaken.
Sisu [February 2]
        On this day the ordinary people eat noodles, Chunbing, Popcorn, Zhutourou, different regions have different cannibalism, but most of the dragon, the general name of the food with "dragon" of the title, such as eating dumplings called to eat "Long ears." eat eat Chunbing called "Professor Moon"; eat eat noodles called "Gracilaria lemaneiformis" eat eat rice called "Dragon Seed" eat eat wonton called "longan." Eat Chunbing called "eating Professor Moon" is the image of a big Chunbing than the palm of your hand like a Professor Moon. Chunbing have toughness, a lot of vegetables, Vol. If Jiang Ru, pork, smoked chicken, Jiangya, wire cut with a knife, with some home-cooking if肉丝speculation Chives bud,肉丝fried spinach, vinegar cooked bean sprouts, Suchao fans, such as sharing eggs , vol together into Chunbing, dipping small Chuangsi Linshang sesame oil and the flour paste to eat, really Xianxiang refreshing. Chunbing eat, the family were sitting together on the defense good Chunbing dome, with the eat with, very warm, Huanhuan Lele. The first two days of February are eating popcorn legend. Legend has it when the Emperor Wu Zetian, the Jade Emperor ordered it to the world within three years while rainfall. But Secretary of the Yulong could not hold Tianhe affected people starving and secretly drop a heavy rain, the Jade Emperor that will be followed by the Secretary palm Tianhe lay Suitengumae Yulong, the pressure in a big mountain below. Yamashita also a landmark legislation, wrote: "Dragon King rainfall committed Regulation days, when the world's future in the crime. Order to re-Deling also offers, unless the beans when flowering." Dragon King to save people, look around for the flowering of beans . By the second year of the first two days of February this day, people are Fanshai golden corn seed, suddenly thought, this is like the corn beans, fried Kailehua, is not the bean flowers? So every household Popcorn, and the incense in the courtyard set for the "flowering of the beans", the Dragon King, and the Jade Emperor to see. Longwang people in the know that this is to save it, to the Jade Emperor loud voice: "The flowering of the beans and let me out!" Jade Emperor saw the earth every household Douhua open courtyard, but Chuanyu, called Dragon King to Heaven, continue to human-cloth rain clouds. Since then, formed a folk custom, the first two days of every February this day, people Popcorn also speculation soybean. February Zhutourou also eat the first two days of the allegation. Since ancient times, the worship of God to use pig sheep Sansheng, later simplified to the first Sansheng, pig is one of them. According to Song "Juche Notes" record of a story: Wang in the Pingding Bashu, very hungry, so Xiaomiao into a village, but encountered a drinking drunken monk, Wang In his order , to the chopped,哪知monks fear no color, Wang make it very strange, instead he seek food, not when the monks presented a "steaming pig," and to that end intonation of poems said: "mouth with short hair fat, long in the mountains to the Food and Drug Administration Miao. when he steamed banana leaf wrapped and cooked the use of apricot oar when pouring. Accor said the little red-Ting, cooked soft jade chopsticks really worthy pick. than to the absence of hair root and, since the root of carpet eat rattan. "Wang steaming in the eating pig, listening to the witty, chic," pig poems "is very pleased, therefore, that the monk closure" Ziyi Master. " Looks really is a pig dishes? He had a meteoric rise but also pull through the auspicious signs. Now there are a specialty called "pull Zhulian" After the election materials, cleaning, baking spray, wash water, butter, and a system 12 steps after more than 10 hours of cooking, can be served at the table. "Zhulian expense" There are three, first genuine eat Second, Zhanjiang juice eat pancake Volume 3 is eating. Eat every kind of a different taste. "Zhulian expense" instead of GREasy fat, meat to bone separation, waxy-appetizers, brought to the modern beauty, Jiannao results. "February 2" eat modern "expense Zhulian" memorable dining ancient history, is a contemporary blend of history and the perfect experience.
[Around] in the February 2
Apart from the above practices are more common, some localities have also unique festive form. [Legend] Shanxi Province, the first two days of Lunar New Year in February is reviving everything day.二月二,龙抬头。 Shanxi is not universally popular festive holiday. Shanxi, and the people are accustomed to in this day Barber, rural剃头is to remove the old Huiqi, meet the prosperity of the coming year. General rural areas, at 2:00 on February, the total should be to improve the food, eating dumplings, straminea eat, eat pancake.
February 2 in the northwest have the habit of eating fried beans, said that the beginning of each spring.
 

【二月二的简介】
   
二月二,汉族民间传统节日。流行于全国多数地区,苗、壮、满、侗、黎、畲、布依、赫哲、鄂温克等少数民族也过此节。此节风俗活动较多,又有花朝节、踏青节、挑莱节、春龙节、青龙节、龙抬头日之称。因时在农历二月初二日,故称。此俗唐代已有记载,白居易《二月二日》诗:“二月二日新雨暗,草牙菜甲一时生。轻衫细马青年少,十字津头一字行。”当时及其后民间以刀尺、百谷、瓜果种籽、迎富贵果子等相问遗,并有挑菜、踏青、迎富等活动。元费著《岁华纪丽谱》:“二月二日踏青节,韧郡人游赏散四郊。….”,又汪灏《广群芳谱•天时谱》引《翰墨记》:“洛阳风俗,以二月二日为花朗节,士庶游玩,又为挑菜节。”明以后,二月二又有关于龙抬头的诸多习俗,诸如撒灰引龙、扶龙、熏虫避蝎、剃龙头、忌针刺龙眼等节俗,故称龙抬头日。清咸丰《武定府志》:“……以(二月)二日为春龙节,取灶灰围屋如龙蛇状,名曰引钱龙,招福祥也。”此外尚有上工、试犁、炒蝎豆、戴蓬草、祭龙王、敬土地、谒高禖、嫁女住春、童子开笔等节俗活动。布依族二月二要进行三天,主要祭祀土地神。节日当天,家家杀鸡敬祖,吃两色(黑、白)糯米饭,祈求土地神保佑全寨安宁。       是日有许多关于龙的活动,故称龙抬头日。二月二龙抬头之俗,早见于明刘侗、于奕正《帝京景物略•卷二春场》:“二月二日,曰龙抬头,放元旦祭余饼,薰床炕,曰薰虫儿,谓引龙,虫不出也。”清代仍沿其俗。富察敦祟《燕京岁时记》:“二月二日,古之中和节也。令人呼为龙抬头。是日食饼者谓之龙鳞饼,食面者谓之龙须面。闺中停止针线,恐伤龙目也。”龙是中国古代文化中地位显赫的神物,是祥瑞之物,更是和风化雨的主宰。俗云“龙不抬头天不雨”,龙抬头意味着云兴雨作,而天地交泰、云兴雨作是万物生育的条件。又,古以为龙为鳞虫之精,百虫之长,龙出则百虫伏藏。二月初正值春回大地、农事开始之时,又是百虫出蜇、蠢蠢欲动之时,故民间有扶龙头、引青龙、剃龙头之举,又有食龙皮、龙须、龙子、龙鳞饼之俗,还有停针、忌磨等禁忌。

【二月二的由来】
       民谚曰:“二月二,龙抬头。”农历二月初二前后是廿四节气之一的惊蛰。据说经过冬眼的龙,到了这一天,就被隆隆的春雷惊醒,便抬头而起。所以古人称农历二月初二为春龙节,又叫龙头节或青龙节。故这一天人们便到江河水畔祭龙神。《中华全国风俗志·寿春岁时记》云:“二月初二日,焚香水畔,以祭龙神。” 人所共知,龙是中华民族自古以来信仰的图腾。所以我们自豪地宣称:炎黄子孙是龙的传人。千百年来,人们把龙视为带神秘色彩的吉祥物。“二月二”是龙抬头的日子,就自然而然地成为民间一个重要节日了,许多习俗也多与龙有关。实际上“二月二,龙抬头”此说和古代天文学有关。中国古代用二十八宿来表示日月星辰在天空的位置和判断季节。二十八宿中的角、亢、氐、房、心、尾、箕七宿组成一个完整的龙形星座、角宿恰似龙的角。每到二月春风以后,黄昏时龙角星就从东方地平线上出现,故称“龙抬头”。        二月二春龙节由来已久。留下许多风俗。明人沈榜的《宛署杂记》中云:“二月引龙,熏百虫。……乡民用灰自门外委婉布入宅厨,旋绕水缸,呼为引龙回。用面摊煎饼。熏床炕令百虫不生。”《明宫史》载:“初二日……各家用黍面枣糕,以油煎之,或以面和稀,摊为煎饼,名曰熏虫。”清人富察郭崇在《燕京岁时记》中也说:“二月二日,……今人呼为龙抬头。是日食饼者谓之龙鳞,食面者谓之龙须面。闺中停止针线,恐伤龙目也。”其中一此习俗一直沿袭至今。80年代中叶,在豫北一带还保留着吃黍米的风俗。二月二早上,家家户户都要煎黍米糕,群众称之年糕,还流传着这样的歌谣:“二月二,煎年糕,细些火,慢点烧,别把老公公的胡须烧着了。”中午皆吃“老龙布蛋”。即玉米蜕皮俗称玉黍米加面条。 其实,人们关心“龙抬头”用各种形式进行纪念,根本原因是与农业生产有关系。正如这首民谣所云:“二月二,龙抬头,大仓满,小仓流。”因为二月正是农作物播种的季节。在科学不发达的时代,百姓们通过各种纪念活动,寄托了祈龙赐福、保佑风调雨顺、五谷丰登的强烈愿望。在民间还流传着这样一首打油诗:“二月二,龙抬头,天子耕地臣赶牛;正宫娘娘来送饭,当朝大臣把种丢。春耕夏耘率天下,五谷丰登太平秋。”朝廷老子率满朝大臣都参加春耕生产,足见春耕不误农时之重要。在北方,二月二又叫龙抬头日,亦称春龙节。在南方叫踏青节,古称挑菜节。大约从唐朝开始,中国人就有过“二月二”的习俗。据资料记载,这句话的来历与古代天文学对星辰运行的认识和农业节气有关。        为什么要“二月二”才龙抬头呢?因为农历二月已进入仲春季节,这时阳气上升,大地复苏、草木萌动,农民们就要春耕、播种了,非常需要土壤湿润,保有水分。这时若是天公降雨,真是太宝贵了,所以有“春雨贵如油”之说。从节气上说,二月初正处在“雨水”、“惊蛰”、“春分”之间,这是个既需要雨水,又可能有降雨的时期,人们多么希望通过对龙的祈求行为来实现降雨的目的。       为什么是龙“抬头”呢?因为二月初处于惊垫前后,蛰伏一冬的各种动物又恢复了活力,该有所活动了。龙抬头了,意味着龙也行动起来了,要履行它降雨的职责了。不过,这种说法是一般人对“二月二龙抬头”的通常解释,通俗易懂。然而对于“龙抬头”还有古代天文学方面的解释,这往往被人忽略。       古人以为地球是不动的,是太阳在运动。早在春秋时期甚至更早,人们就把太阳在恒星之间的周年运动轨迹视为一个圆,称为黄道。再利用某些恒星把这个圆分为28个等分,形成28个区间,称为二十八宿。“宿”表示居住。如果观察月亮的运行,它基本上是每天入住一宿,待28宿轮流住完,大约一个月,所以称“宿”。把这28宿按照东南西北四个方位平分,每个方位便有7个宿。对这28宿,都给它们起了名字。在东方的7个宿分别叫做:角、亢、氐、房、心、尾、箕,它们构成一组,称之为东方苍龙。其中角宿象征龙的头角,亢宿是龙的颈,氐宿是龙的胸,房宿是龙的腹,心宿是龙的心,尾宿、箕宿是龙的尾巴。在冬季,这苍龙七宿都隐没在地平线下,黄昏以后也看不见它们。至二月初,黄昏来临时,角宿就从东方地平线上出现了。这时整个苍龙的身子还隐没在地平线以下,只是角宿初露,故称龙抬头。《说文解字》在解释“龙”字时说:“龙,鳞虫之长。能幽能明,能细能巨,能短能长。春分而登天,秋分而潜渊。”都是指这苍龙7宿在天空的隐现变化,并非是真有一条动物之龙在变换。“春分而登天”是指春分时期,角宿开始出现在天空,东方苍龙初露头角,即是龙抬头。
【二月二的发展】
       中国远古对龙的崇拜信仰一直延续下来,把龙视为管雨水的动物神越来越明确,所以《左传》桓公五年说:“龙现而雩”,是说惊蛰以后龙就要出现了,这时要举行祈求降雨的祭祀。战国时的地理、神话著作《山海经》中也说,应龙居处在南方,“故南方多雨”,而烛龙“不食不寝不息,风雨是谒”,也就是经常招来风雨。由于想象中的龙能腾云驾雾,于是迷信龙能给人带来祥瑞,来到人间便可以化身为帝王天子,以致把皇帝称为真龙天子。       直接借助龙的形象举行求雨活动的最早记载,见于西汉董仲舒的《春秋繁露》。书中提到舞龙求雨的活动。在汉代画像石上也刻有“戏龙”的舞蹈场面。这些都可以看作后世耍龙灯的滥觞。       唐朝人已把二月初二作为一个特殊的日子,说这是“迎富贵”的日子,在这一天要吃“迎富贵果子”,就是吃一些点心类食品。宋代宫廷在这一天也有专门活动。宋人周密在《武林旧事》中记述南宋时,二月初二这一天宫中有“挑菜”御宴活动。宴会上,在一些小斛(口小底大的量器)中种植生菜等新鲜菜蔬,把它们的名称写在丝帛上,压放在斛下,让大家猜。根据猜的结果,有赏有罚。这一活动既是“尝鲜儿”,又有娱乐,所以当时“王宫贵邸亦多效之”。不过,唐宋时的这些“二月二”活动并没有和“龙抬头”联系在一起。       到了元朝,二月二就明确是“龙抬头”了。《析津志》在描述元大都的风俗时提到,“二月二,谓之龙抬头”。这一天人们盛行吃面条,称为“龙须面”;还要烙饼,叫作“龙鳞”;若包饺子,则称为“龙牙”。总之都要以龙体部位命名。
【二月二的传说】
      谚“二月二,龙抬头”,传说古时候关中地区久旱不雨,玉皇大帝命令东海小龙前去播雨。小龙贪玩,一头钻进河里不再出来。有个小伙子,到悬崖上采来了“降龙水”,搅浑河水。小龙从河中露出头来与小伙子较量,小龙被击败,只好播雨。其实,所谓“龙抬头”指的是经过冬眠,百虫开始苏醒。所以俗话说“二月二,龙抬头,蝎子、蜈蚣都露头。”       “二月二”还有一种说法叫春龙节。许慎的《说文解字》记载:“龙,鳞中之长,能幽能明、能细能巨,能长能短,春分登天,秋分而潜渊。”这大概就是“春龙节”习俗的最早记载。       相传,武则天当了皇帝,玉帝便下令三年内不许向人间降雨。但司掌天河的玉龙不忍百姓受灾挨饿,偷偷降了一场大雨,玉帝得知后,将司掌天河的玉龙打下天宫,压在一座大山下面。山下还立了一块碑,上写道:龙王降雨犯天规,当受人间千秋罪。要想重登灵霄阁,除非金豆开花时。       人们为了拯救龙王,到处寻找开花的金豆。到了第二年二月初二这一天,人们正在翻晒金黄的玉米种子,猛然想起,这玉米就象金豆,炒开了花,不就是金豆开花吗?于是家家户户爆玉米花,并在院里设案焚香,供上“开花的金豆”,专让龙王和玉帝看见。龙王知道这是百姓在救它,就大声向玉帝喊到:“金豆开花了,放我出去!”玉帝一看人间家家户户院里金豆花开放,只好传谕,诏龙王回到天庭,继续给人间兴云布雨。       从此以后,民间形成了习惯,每到二月二这一天,人们就爆玉米花,也有炒豆的。大人小孩还念着:“二月二,龙抬头,大仓满,小仓流。”有的地方在院子里用灶灰撒成一个个大圆圈,将五谷杂粮放于中间,称作“打囤”或“填仓”。其意是预祝当年五谷丰登,仓囤盈满。节日时,各地也普遍把食品名称加上“龙”的头衔。吃水饺叫吃“龙耳”;吃春饼叫吃“龙鳞”;吃面条叫吃“龙须”;吃米饭叫吃“龙子”;吃馄饨叫吃“龙眼”。
【二月二的民俗】
       元朝以后关于“二月二龙抬头”的各种民俗活动记载便多了起来。人们也把这一天叫作龙头节、春龙节或青龙节。清末的《燕京岁时记》说:“二月二日……今人呼为龙抬头。是日食饼者谓之龙鳞饼,食面者谓之龙须面。闺中停止针线,恐伤龙目也。”这时不仅吃饼吃面条,妇女还不能操做针线活,怕伤害了龙的眼睛。《辽中县志》记载民国时当地二月二的民俗说:“二月二日,俗称龙抬头。晨起以竿敲梁,谓之敲龙头,意谓龙蛰起陆,盖时近惊蛰之期。农家咸以粗米面作饼及馒首而为早餐。妇女于是日为童孩剃头,盖取龙抬头之意云。”这是辽宁地区的民俗,清晨要用长竿敲击房梁,把龙唤醒。同时也制作一些面食吃。       二月二龙抬头作为古代民俗的一种节日,如今已经基本上从中国人的现代生活中淡化出去了。不过,我们也应该认识到,对于“二月二龙抬头”的一些文化内涵,例如古人对龙的崇拜、“龙抬头”在古天文学上的唯物解释等等,是仍然具有研究价值的。       农历二月初二,是淮安民间的传统节日之一,名叫“龙抬头”,也称“龙头节”。“二月二龙抬头,家家男子剃龙头”。旧时淮安民间有“有钱无钱,剃头过年”的说法。春节前剃头理发到了二月二,已经一个多月,正是需要剃头理发的时候。二月二龙抬头,是吉祥如意的日子,时间一长,就形成了二月二剃头的习俗。“二月二龙抬头,家家小孩剃毛头”也是这一原因,为取吉利在剃头中间加“龙”字,叫剃“龙”头,以区别其它时间的剃头,还有些女孩选此日穿耳孔。另外,家长们选此日送孩子们人学读书。       “二月二,家家人家接女儿”。旧时,正月新娘不回门,媳妇不走娘家,正月不空房。同时还有“出嫁的闺女正月不能看娘家的灯,看了娘家的灯死公公”的迷信说法,因而正月出嫁的女儿不准回娘家。一个多月的时间,闺女想娘,娘想闺女,所以到了二月二,不仅已经出了正月,而且又是吉祥如意的日子,所以各家都接女儿回娘家。       “二月二,照房梁,蝎子、娱蛤无处藏”。这天,用过年祭祀剩下来的蜡烛点着,照房梁和墙壁,以驱灭害虫。另外,在这天,孩子们用筷子敲干瓢,边敲边说:“二月二,敲瓢叉,十个老鼠九个瞎。”用筷子敲酒盅说:“二月二,敲酒盅,十窝老鼠九窝空”,以此来驱鼠灭鼠。用白纸条书写“二月二,诸虫蚂蚁直入地”的“蜒蛐榜”,其中“诸虫蚂蚁直入地”要倒书,然后将其贴在桌腿或床脚上,以避虫蚁。       “二月二,龙抬头,大囤满,小囤流”,用青灰画粮囤或粮仓,或在门前用青灰画大小不等的圆圈,象征大圆接小圆,祈祷丰收,这又是民间一俗。       二月二,有的还有吃食除夕锅巴和妇女忌用针线的习俗。据说龙抬头时动针线,会伤害龙的眼睛。       二月二,相传是土地公公的生日,称“土地诞”,为给土地公公“暖寿”,有的地方有举办“土地会”的习俗:家家凑钱为土地神祝贺生日,到土地庙烧香祭祀,敲锣鼓,放鞭炮,建国后此俗逐渐淡化。 
【二月二的食俗】
       普通人家在这一天要吃面条、春饼、爆玉米花、猪头肉等,不同地域有不同的吃食,但大都与龙有关,普遍把食品名称加上“龙”的头衔,如吃水饺叫吃“龙耳”;吃春饼叫吃“龙鳞”;吃面条叫吃“龙须”;吃米饭叫吃“龙子”;吃馄饨叫吃“龙眼”。       吃春饼叫做“吃龙鳞”是很形象的,一个比手掌大的春饼就像一片龙鳞。春饼有韧性,内卷很多菜。如酱肉、肘子、熏鸡、酱鸭等,用刀切成细丝,配几种家常炒菜如肉丝炒韭芽、肉丝炒菠菜、醋烹绿豆芽、素炒粉丝、摊鸡蛋等,一起卷进春饼里,蘸着细葱丝和淋上香油的面酱吃,真是鲜香爽口。吃春饼时,全家围坐一起,把烙好的春饼放在蒸锅里,随吃随拿,热热乎乎,欢欢乐乐。       二月初二吃爆米花有传说。相传武则天当了皇帝,玉帝便下令三年内不许向人间降雨。但司掌天河的玉龙不忍百姓受灾挨饿,偷偷降了一场大雨,玉帝得知后,将司掌天河的玉龙打下天宫,压在一座大山下面。山下还立了一块碑,上写道:“龙王降雨犯天规,当受人间千秋罪。要想重登凌霄阁,除非金豆开花时。”人们为了拯救龙王,到处寻找开花的金豆。到了第二年二月初二这一天,人们正在翻晒金黄的玉米种子时,猛然想起,这玉米就像金豆,炒开了花,不就是金豆开花吗?于是家家户户爆玉米花,并在院里设案焚香,供上“开花的金豆”,专让龙王和玉帝看见。龙王知道这是百姓在救它,就大声向玉帝喊道:“金豆开花了,放我出去!”玉帝一看人间家家户户院里金豆花开放,只好传谕,召龙王回到天庭,继续给人间兴云布雨。从此以后,民间形成了习俗,每到二月初二这一天,人们就爆玉米花,也有炒黄豆的。       二月初二吃猪头肉也有说法。自古以来,供奉祭神总要用猪牛羊三牲,后来简化为三牲之头,猪头即其中之一。另据宋代的“仇池笔记”记录的一个故事:王中令平定巴蜀之后,甚感饥饿,于是闯入一乡村小庙,却遇上了一个喝得醉醺醺的和尚,王中令大怒,欲斩之,哪知和尚全无惧色,王中令很奇怪,转而向他讨食,不多时和尚献上了一盘“蒸猪头”并为此赋诗曰:“嘴长毛短浅含膘,久向山中食药苗。蒸时已将蕉叶裹,熟时兼用杏桨浇。红鲜雅称金盘汀,熟软真堪玉箸挑。若无毛根来比并,毡根自合吃藤条。”王中令吃着蒸猪头,听着风趣别致的“猪头诗”甚是高兴,于是,封那和尚为“紫衣法师”。看起来猪头还真是一道佳肴呢,而且也是转危为安平步青云的吉祥标志。如今就有一道名菜叫做“扒猪脸”,经过选料、清洗、喷烤、洗泡、酱制等十二道步骤,历经十多个小时的烹饪,才能端上餐桌。“扒猪脸”有三种,一是原汁原味吃;二是蘸酱汁吃;三是卷煎饼吃。每一种吃法都有不同的滋味。“扒猪脸”肥而不腻、肉骨分离、糯香可口,给现代人带来了美容、健脑的效果。“二月二”吃现代“扒猪脸”,回味古代的餐饮历史,真是一种当代与历史交融的完美体验。
【二月二在各地】
  除了以上较为普遍的习俗外,各地还有些独特的过节形式。【山西省】  传说中,农历二月初二是万物复苏的日子。二月二,龙抬头。是山西民间普遍流传的不成节日的节日。在山西,老百姓都习惯于在这一天理发,农村则是剃头,借以去掉昔日的秽气,迎接来年的兴旺。一般农村,在二月二时,总要改善一下伙食,吃饺子,吃麻花,吃煎饼。
二月二在西北有吃炒豆子的习惯,表示每年春天的开始。

 

 

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