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研究高考试题 跨越习惯搭配误区

[日期:2019-06-25]   [字体: ]

英语句子中词语和词语之间有一定的“习惯搭配”,在做英语试题时,我们常常会凭借“习惯搭配”的经验,有时会很容易地选择出正确答案。但有时答案不一定正确,这是因为试题经过巧妙伪装,貌似“习惯搭配”,给人以错觉。下面通过对高考试题的举例分析,帮助考生跨越“习惯搭配”的误区。

1.  I aGREe with most of what you said, but I don't agree with ______.

    A. everything      B. anything  

    C. something       D. nothing

试题分析:根据试题前面提供的信息我同意你所说的大部分”,意味着我不能全部同意”,因此选     everything切合题意。everything和否定词not连用构成部分否定。又如:

Not everything is useful. 并非每件东西都有用。

习惯搭配:此题易误选B。当句中有否定词not时,常用anything。如:

I didn't say anything at the meeting. 我在会上什么也没有说。

2.  Some of the wheat is from Canada. What about _____?

    A. another B. the other  C. others      D. the rest

试题分析:正确答案为D。如果注意到wheat为不可数名词,则很容易排除A、B和C。the rest既可代替可数名词,也可代替不可数名词,这里用来代替“其余的麦子”。又如:

Some students in our class are going to clean the street. The rest are staying in the classroom. 我们班一些学生打算去打扫街道,其余的将留在教室里。

The boy was given ten yuan by his mother. He spent six on the books,and the rest on the exercise-books. 母亲给这孩子十元钱。他花了六元钱买书,其余的买了练习本。

习惯搭配:此题易误选C。前面用了some,后面常用others与之对应。如:

Some birds will fly to the south,and others will stay with you. 有些鸟会飞到南方去,而另外一些会与你呆在一起。

3.  Let's walk over _____ the sun.

    A. in   B. to       C. under        D. by

试题分析:正确答案为B。to表示“朝着(……方向)”,题意为“让我们朝着太阳的方向走过去”。句中副词over和walk连用,有“从一边走到另外一边”的意思,但over不表示固定的方向。又如:

We went over to the crowd to see what was happening. 我们朝人群走过去,想看看发生了什么事。

习惯搭配:此题易误选A。in the sun通常表示“在阳光下”。如:

In the winter,we often read and talk in the sun. 在冬天,我们常常在阳光下读书和交谈。

4.  The home improvements have taken what little there is _____ my spare time.

    A. from B. in      C. of    D. at

试题分析:正确答案为C。take表示“占用(时间)”的意思,后面接由what引导的宾语从句,其语序为感叹句语序,正常语序是:there is what little of my spare time,故选of。

习惯搭配:此题易误选B。in one's spare time表示“在某人空闲的时间里”。如:

    In order to improve my English,I have to study it in my spare time. 为了提高我的英语水平,我不得不在我空闲的时间里学习

5. Rose was wild with joy _____ the result of the examination.

    A. to   B. at       C. by   D. as

试题分析:be wild with joy at...表示“因……而欣喜若狂”,故答案为at。题意为:罗斯一听(看)到考试结果便欣喜若狂。at常表原因,有“一听(看)到……就……”之意。如:

    I'm very glad at the news. 听到这个消息,我非常高兴。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选D。as the / a result of...表示“由于……的结果”。如:

As a result of what we saw,we decided to change the rules. 鉴于我们所看到的情况,我们决定改变规则。

 

6. I wanted two seats ________ Madame Curie for Friday night. So I rang the cinema to see if I could book two tickets.

    A. of       B. about    C. to    D. for

    试题分析:表示在电影院为Madame Curie预订两个座位,要用介词for,故选D。又如:

    The mother bought a pair of shoes for her daughter in the shop. 母亲在商店为女儿买了一双鞋。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选of。介词of常用来表示所属关系。如:

    Many foreigners visited the house of Chairman Mao. 许多外国人参观了毛主席的故居.

7. ________ most students,she was already well prepared and never came to class late.

    A. Like B. As    C. For    D. To

    试题分析:正确答案为A。like作介词时意思是“像……一样”,这里表示“像大多数学生一样”。又如:

    Like his father,he is of cool temper. 像他父亲一样,遇事冷静。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选B。as是“作为……”的意思。如:

    As a young person,you should study hard for the country. 作为一个年轻人,你应该为国家努力学习

8. Mr. Read made up his mind to devote all he had to ________ some schools for poor children.

    A. set up           B. setting up

    C. have set up      D. having set up

    试题分析:题中he had是定语从句,修饰all。devote...to....意思是“把……奉献给……”,其中to是介词,后面接V-ing形式,故答案为B。又如:

    The teacher devoted his youth to teaching the children in the mountainous area. 那位教师把他的青春献给了山区的孩子。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选A。have to do sth.意为“不得不做某事”。如:

    We had to go to the city on foot because there was no bus at that time. 因为当时没有客车,我们不得不步行进城。

9. Do you know the difficulty he had ________ the work?

    A. on finishing         B. to finish       

    C. finishing            D. having finished

    试题分析:正确答案为C。题中he had...the work是定语从句,修饰difficultyhave difficulty(in) doing sth. 是固定句型。关系代词that被省略,in也被省略,故出现had与finishing相邻的情况。又如:

    They had some difficulty (in) learning English. 他们学习英语有些困难。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选B。和题8相同,have to do sth.表示“不得不做某事”。

10. —How do you deal with the disaGREement between the company and the customers?

    —The key ________ the problem is to meet the demand _____ by the customers.

    A. to solving; making      B. to solving; made   

      C. to solve; making         D. to solve; made

    试题分析:第二空填made构成过去分词短语作定语修饰名词demand,意为“满足顾客提出的要求”。第一空填to solving作定语修饰the key,意为“解决问题的关键”。key的意思是“关键”,后接“介词to + 名词/ 动名词”作定语。又如:

    The key to the settlement of the question / to settling the question lies in detail discussion. 解决问题的关键在于详细地讨论。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选D。to在其它场合既可看作是介词,也可看作是不定式符号。如:

    I don't know the entrance to the station. 我不知道车站的入口。

    The best way to help him is to ask the doctor for advice.  帮助他最好的办法是请教医生。

 

11. Charles Babbage is generally considered ________ the first computer.

    A. to have invented     B. inventing        C. to invent   D. having invented

试题分析:is considered是被动语态,此题变为主动语态为:People consider Charles Babbage to have invented the first computer.其句型为:consider sb. to do sth.。又因为不定式动作发生在consider之前,要用完成式,故答案为C。

习惯搭配:此题易误选B或D。consider doing sth. 意为“考虑做某事”。如:

Jim is considering coming to China for a visit. 吉姆在考虑来中国参观。

12. She can't help ________the house  because she's busy making a cake.

    A. to clean     B. cleaning  

    C. cleaned      D. being cleaned

试题分析:试题意思为因为她忙着做蛋糕,所以她不能帮忙打扫房子。can't help是“不能够帮忙”的意思,后接不定式,故选A。又如:

They couldn't help to finish the task. 他们不能够帮助完成任务。

习惯搭配:此题易误选B。 can't help doing sth.意为“情不自禁做某事”。如:

The girl couldn't help crying when she heard the news. 这个女孩听到这个消息时,忍不住哭了起来。

13. In that case, there is nothing you can do________than wait.

A. more     B. other        C. better       D. any

试题分析:此题答案为Bother than和否定词no,notnothing等连用,意为……外没有;只有。又如:

It was no other than my mother. 除我母亲外,没有别人(这正是我母亲)。

    I can do nothing other than smile. 我不由得一笑。

习惯搭配:此题易误选A或C。 than前面常用形容词比较级。如:

I have many more books than she. 我的书比她的书多得多。

His idea is better than yours. 他的想法比你的好些。

14. She set out soon after dark________ home an hour later.

A. arriving     B. to arrive   C. having arrived   D. and arrived

试题分析:因为出发到达不可能同时发生,所以不能用现在分词作伴随状语。故选D。

习惯搭配:此题易误选A。在句子后面,常跟现在分词短语作伴随状语,此时用逗号与句子隔开。如:

The man sat on the chair,reading a newspaper. 那人坐在椅子上,看着报纸。

15. Excuse me for breaking in,________I have some news for you.

    A. so    B. and    C. but     D. yet

    试题分析:答案为C。 在表示“对不起”时,常用委婉说法“Excuse me,but…或I'm sorry, but…”,but后面接完整的句子,but可不必译出。又如:

    Excuse me,but are you going to the party?劳驾,你们要去聚会吗?

    I'm sorry,but I disaGREe with you all. 对不起,我和你们大家的看法不一致。

习惯搭配:此题易误选B。“祈使句 + and + 句子”,祈使句表示“条件”,相当于if引导的条件状语从句,and后的句子相当于主句。又如:

    Come earlier,and you'll meet Mr. Li.(If you come earlier,you'll meet Mr. Li.)早点来,你就会见到李先生了。

16. —I'm going to the post office.

    —______  you're  there, can you get me some stamps?

    A. As       B. While        C. Because      D. If

试题分析:答案为B。while表示“当……时;趁……时”,引导时间状语从句表示一段时间,主句动作在这段时间中发生。又如:

I read a short story while I waited for the bus. 我等车时读了一个短篇故事

习惯搭配:受汉语影响,此题易选C,误以为是表示原因。because引导原因状语从句。如:

Because you are a League member,you should help others. 因为你是一个共青团员,所以你应该帮助别人。

17. Is this the reason________at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?

    A. he explained     B. what he explained 

    C. how he explained     D. why he explained

试题分析:答案为A。he explained...是定语从句修饰the reason。又如:

    The reason that you gave me sounded reasonable. 你向我说明的理由听起来合情合理。

习惯搭配:此题易误选D。在reason后面常接由why引导的定语从句。如:

The student explained to the teacher the reason why he was late for class. 那位学生向老师解释了他迟到的理由。

18. —Alice, you feed the bird today,________?

    —But I fed it yesterday.

    A. do you       B. will you         C. didn't you       D. don't you

    试题分析:此题为祈使句,Aliceyou是呼语,故要选will you。又如:

    Li Min,come to my birthday party this evening,will you?李敏,今晚来参加我的生日聚会好吗?

    习惯搭配:此题在形式上极像陈述句,易误选D。肯定陈述句的反意疑问句用否定形式,且主语和简略的谓语与前面的主语和谓语保持一致。如:

    You study very hard,don't you?你学习很努力,是吗?

19. ________some of this juice—perhaps you'll like it.

    A. Trying   B. Try          C. To try  D. Have tried 

    试题分析:答案为B。试题前半部分是祈使句,有条件意味,符号“—”相当于and,因此此题句型属“祈使句 + and + 句子”。又如:

    Read these words more times — maybe  you'll  remember  them. 多读这些单词,或许你就会记住的。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选A。现在分词短语常作状语。如:

    Thinking over and over,finally he made his decision. 经过反复考虑,他最后作出了决定。

20. Sarah hopes to become a friend of________shares her interests.     

A. anyone   B. whomever C. whoever      D. no matter who

    试题分析:of后面接宾语从句,从句缺主语,故选whoever。whoever引导宾语从句,并在从句中作主语。又如:

    He told the story to whoever would listen. 他把那件事情告诉了任何愿意听的人。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选D。no matter who可引导让步状语从句。如:

    You can give the picture to him no matter who wants to look at it. 无论谁想看那张照片,就把它给他。

21. She found her calculator ________she lost it.

    A. where   B. when    C. in which    D. that

    试题分析:答案为Awhere引导地点状语从句。又如:

    You'd  better  put  the  tool where it was. 你最好把工具放在原来的地方。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选D。因为后面的从句极像是由关系代词that引导的定语从句,但从句多了it(= her calculator)。that可引导定语从句,代替与修饰先行词,但从句中不能再有重复先行词的词。如:

    This is the pen that you gave me yesterday. 这是你昨天给我的钢笔。

22. Books of this kind________ well.

    A. sell     B. sells       C. are sold D. is sold

    试题分析:答案为A。在此题中sell是不及物动词,意为“销售”,题意为“这种书销售很好”。类似说法还有:

    This pen writes well. 这枝钢笔写字很流畅。

    习惯搭配:此题易误选C。sell常作及物动词,可有被动语态。如:

    TV sets of this kind are sold in that shop. 那家商店销售这种电视机。

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