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四级词汇(新东方保85分笔记)

[日期:2012-10-21]   [字体: ]
第1课
如果想达到85分以上,词汇应该错6个以内。
Jump for the sun, at least you land on the moon. 目标定的高一点有好处。
4200单词要求对于4级考试,高三毕业是1800个单词。
我喜欢这里: I like here. Right: I like it here.
I can succeed. Right: I can do it. I can make it.
注意生活中的英语: Nike胜利女神。 Just do it.
生活中的英语: Did you have a pleasant journey? (这时要用降调)
I am very much frightened because a girl named Monika stands beside me. Oh, thank god! He’s not the president now. (我很害怕)
I was just screwed up. (我一团糟)
四级考试中常见的考察词汇的题型:
I 押韵题型(押头韵、押尾韵);
答案总在相似中,如果有三个一样,基本上就在其中了。
54. The rain was heavy and _A_ the land was flooded.
A consequently B continuously C constantly D consistently
continue v. 继续,连续; continually adv. 时断时续地; continuously adv. 连续不断地。
说不停的咳嗽时,continually是间歇的时断时续的咳嗽,continuously是一直不停的咳嗽。
consequently adv. 因此,所以;(heavy rain大雨, light rain小雨)
constantly adv. 始终如一地,连续发生地;constant temperature 恒温
consistently adv. 一贯地,一致地; consistent adj. consistent policy 一贯的政策。
36. I hate people who _C_ the end of a film that you haven't seen before.
A revise B rewrite C reveal D reverse
rewrite v. 重写,改写; revise vt. 修改,修正; reveal vt. 揭示,揭露;
reverse vt. 颠倒,使反转,使反向。(vers是词根,表示转动;re是前缀,表示向相反方向)
42. There were no tickets _D_ for Friday’s performance.
A preferable B considerable C possible D available
performance n. 表演,演出,演奏; perform vt. possible adj. 可能的
动词后加able构成形容词通常表示“可…的” read -> readable accept -> acceptable
consider vt. 考虑; considerable adj. (数量或尺寸)相当大(或多)的。
preferable adj. 更好的,更可取的;
available* adj. 可获得的,可利用的,可支配的。(重点词)
33. In general, the amount that a student spends for housing should be held to one-fifth of the total _D_ for living expenses.
A acceptable B applicable C advisable D available
living expenses 生活费; acceptable adj. 可接受的;
apply vt. 申请,应用; applicable adj. 可应用的,适当的,合适的;
advise vt. 建议; advice n. 建议; advisable adj. 明智的,可取的。
54. It is our _A_ policy that we will achieve unity through peaceful means.
A consistent B continuous C considerate D continual
achieve unity through peaceful means 通过和平手段取得统一; consistent policy 一贯政策
II 构词法题型(词的转化,合成,派生);
构成符合形容词的名词和数量词一律用单数。(见下面2个例题)
31. Despite the wonderful acting and well-developed plot the _B_ movie could not hold our attention.
A three-hours B three-hour C three-hours’ D three-hour’s
267. Professor White wrote a _C_ report yesterday.
A two-thousand-words B two-thousands-word
C two-thousand-word D two-thousands-words
以ly结尾的不全是副词; friendly, lonely, lovely, likely, lively adj.
考试中常见的否定前缀: un-、dis-、in-、im-
56. _B_ his sister, Jack is quiet and does not easily make friends with others.
A Dislike B Unlike C Alike D Liking
like vt. 喜欢; dislike vt. 不喜欢,厌恶; unlike prep. 不象…;
alike adj. & adv. 同样的(地),相象的(地); liking n. 爱好,嗜好;
take a liking for喜欢…,对…产生好感。
III 近义词含义比较;
44. There were some _A_ flowers on the table.
A artificial B unnatural C false D unreal
unreal adj. 不真实的(不是真实世界所拥有的,虚幻的); Ends justify means 不择手段;
false adj. 具有欺骗性的,假的,伪造的; false coin/passport/hair,a false tooth/false teeth
unnatural adj. 不自然的,经常用来修饰人的行为举止,表示做作的,矫揉造作的。
artificial adj. 人造人为的 artificial leg 假肢artificial leather 人造皮 genuine leather 真皮
54. When people become unemployed, it is _C_ which is often worse than lack of wages.
A laziness B poverty C idleness D inability
laziness n. 懒惰; poverty n. 贫穷; poor adj. 贫穷的;
idleness n. 无事可做(中性,有时也有贬义含义); inability n. 没有能力,没有办法。
69. A lot of ants are always invading my kitchen. They are a thorough _A_.
A nuisance B trouble C worry D anxiety
invade 进攻,侵略; nuisance n. (具体的)令人讨厌的东西; trouble n. 烦恼,麻烦,问题;
worry n. 担心,发愁; anxiety n. 焦虑。 What a nuisance. 真是烦。
IV 搭配关系问题;
extent n. 程度; to... extent 到达…程度,在…程度之上; extent 只能和to搭配。
object vi. 反对; object + to + 动名词(动词的ing形式)。
objection n. 反对; objection + to + 动名词(动词的ing形式)。
V 形相近,意相远;
65. In Britain, the best season of the year is probably _A_ spring.
A late B last C latter D later
late adj. 晚的,晚于通常时间的; late spring 晚春、暮春; last adj. 最后的,最终的;
later adj. 更晚的(late的比较级)、时间概念后一半的;只适用于表示某个世纪的后半期;
The later twentieth century. 二十世纪的后一半。
latter adj. (两者中)后者的; former adj. (两者中)前者的;
59. Some people would like to do shopping on Sundays since they expect to pick up wonderful _B_ in the market.
A batteries B bargains C baskets D barrels
battery n. 电池; bargain n. 特价商品; It’s really a bargain. 你真会买东西,不是说真便宜。
basket n. 篮子; barrel n. 桶; wonderful bargain 物美价廉的商品;bargain v. 讨价还价;
53. Remember that customers don’t _D_ about prices in that city.
A debate B consult C dispute D bargain
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41. The bridge was named _A_ the hero who gave his life for the cause of the people.
A after B with C by D from
cause 事业; be named after 以…的名字命名;
42. There were no tickets _D_ for Friday’s performance.
A preferable B considerable C possible D available
preferable adj. 更好的,更可取的;
358. _C_ the Revolutionary War, the United States was an English colony.
A Inferior to B Superior to C Prior to D Preferable to
具有比较意味的形容词只要与介词to搭配即可表示其比较级。 super- 表示在…上方,超过…
inferior adj. 低于…的,劣于…的; superior adj. 高于…的,优于…的; prior adj. 在…之前的
Revolutionary War 特指美国独立战争;second adj. 第二的(含有比较意味,也与to搭配)
He is second to none. 首屈一指,无与伦比;
30. Cancer is second only _B_ heart disease as a cause of death.
A of B to C with D from
43. It wasn't such a good dinner _C_ she had promised us.
A that B which C as D what
such … that … 如此… 以至于… ; sb + be + ___ + sth 空格处应为能加双宾语的动词;
加双宾语的动词的用法:动词 + sb + sth(主动形式); sb + be + pp + sth(被动形式);
59. American women were _D_ the right to vote until 1920 after many years of hard struggle. [the right to vote 选举权]
A ignored B neglected C refused D denied
deny v. 否认,拒绝;deny sb sth 拒绝给予某人某物;
44. They decided to chase the cow away _C_ it did more damage.
A unless B until C before D although
45. _B_ student with a little common sense should be able to answer the question.
A Each B Any C Either D One
common sense 常识; each 这个词在英语中强调的是个体与众不同的特点;
any 这个词强调的是很多东西在一起的共性; either 两者之间任何一个;
31. The medicine is on sale everywhere. You can get it at _C_ chemist’s.
A each B some C any D certain
46. All _D_ is a continuous supply of the basic necessities of life.
A what is needed B for our needs C the thing needed D that is needed
当all作定语从句的先行词时,从句只能用that来引导; all that = what
47. _A_ with the size of the whole earth, the highest mountain does not seem high at all.
A When compared B Compare C While comparing D Comparing
本题的关键是弄清compare与mountain的关系; when 可以直接加过去分词;
before(after) + being + 过去分词;
44. After _A_ for the job, you will be required to take a language test.
A being interviewed B interviewed C interviewing D having interviewed
They lose their health to make money, and they lose their money to restore health.
48. _C_ she first heard of the man referred to as a specialist. [专家]
A That was from Stephen B It was Stephen whom
C It was from Stephen that D It was Stephen that
本题重点是强调句式; 当被强调部分指人且在句子中作宾语时,其余部分可用whom引导;
49. If these shoes are too big, ask the clerk to bring you a smaller _D_.
A suit B set C one D pair
50. Many new _A_ will be opened up in the future for those with a university education.
A opportunities B necessities C realities D probabilities
51. He must have had an accident, or he _A_ then.
A would have been here B had to be here C should be here D would be here
must have + 过去分词 表示对过去行为的肯定推测;
与过去事态相反用:情态动词 + have + 过去分词 来体现虚拟语气;
must 一定,必须; needn't, don't have to 不必;
53. You _A_ all those calculations! We have a computer to do that sort of thing.
A needn’t have done B must not have done
C shouldn’t have done D can not have done
should have + 过去分词 本应该,本应当; shouldn't have done本不应该,本不应当;
44. It was very kind of you to do the washing-up, but you _D_ it.
A mustn’t have done B wouldn’t have done
C mightn’t have done D didn’t have to do
52. It was essential that the applications forms _C_ back before the deadline.
A must be sent B would be sent C be sent D were sent
It be essential that 后面一定用虚拟语气,且句子谓语动词固定为(should) + 动词原型;
It was essential that the applications forms send back before the deadline.
53. We _D_ our breakfast when an old man came to the door.
A just have had B have just had C just had D had just had
when 还可以表示①刚..就… (有动作先后关系)、②恰在此时;
44. I had just started back for the house to change my clothes _D_ I heard voices.
A as B while C after D when
45. I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave, _C_ something occurred which attracted my attention.
A unless B until C when D while
64. It was essential that these application forms _D_ back as early as possible.
A must be sent B will be sent C are sent D be sent


第2课
非谓语动词与独立主格:短语,句子(或者句子,短语)
1.当短语部分有独立主语,并且该主语不同于句子主语,这时短语结构称为独立主格。(它最明显的特点是短语部分有独立的主语)。
独立主格的结构1:名词(代词)+ 分词 [现在分词、过去分词]
现在分词表示主动的,正在进行的行为;过去分词表示被动的,已经完成的行为。 作题时要通过判断动作与名词(代词)之间的关系来确定是使用现在分词还是过去分词。当动作由名词(代词)发出时使用现在分词,而名词(代词)是受动者时则用过去分词。
54. Silver is the best conductor of electricity, copper _B_ it closely.
A followed B following C to follow D being followed
49. All things _A_, the planned trip will have to be called off.
A considered B be considered C considering D having considered
call off 取消; cancel vt. 取消; 四级中的考点就是现在分词和过去分词的区别。
独立主格的结构2:with + 名词(代词)+ 分词 [句子当中作状语]
36. After the Arab states won independence, GREat emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls as well as boys _C_ to go to school.
A to be encouraged B been encouraged C being encouraged D be encouraged
as well as 和(相当于and); be encouraged不会考。
动词不定式有预示将来行为的含义。to be encouraged 将要被鼓励;
been encouraged 已经被鼓励完了,与主句的谓语动词相对;being encouraged 正在被鼓励
2.短语部分没有独立主语,则短语结构称为非谓语动词。
非谓语动词的结构:分词(分词短语)
句子的主语决定非谓语动词中的分词是用主动还是被动形式。如果是句子的主语发出动作,则使用现在分词;如果动作不是由句子的主语发出,则使用过去分词。
43.No matter how frequently _A_, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.
A performed B performing C to be performed D being performed
perform vt. 表演,演出,演奏;
to be performed 将要被演奏; being performed 正在被演奏;
一些特殊的动词:
第一点:forget 忘记; [反义] remember 记得;
这两个词后加动词不定式表示将要进行的行为;这两个词后加动词ing形式表示已经做过的事情。
注意:动名词与现在分词形式一样,但含义不同。这两个词后加动词ing形式都是动名词。
forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事; forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事;
remember to do sth. 记得要去做某事; remember doing sth. 记得做过某事;
62. I remember _B_ to help us if we ever got into trouble.
A once offering B him once offering C him to offer D to offer him
offer vt. 提出,提供; offer sb. sth. / offer to do sth.
him once offering 如果改成 his once offering 也正确。
动名词的复合结构:凡是一个动词的后面可以加动名词,就可以加动名词的复合结构。
动作发出者 + 动名词;当动作发出者名字给出时:名词所有格 + 动名词;当动名词的复合结构在文章中出现,且动作发出者在前文中提过时:形容词物主代词(宾格)+ 动名词。
形容词物主代词:his, her, my, your, their, our。代词宾格:him, her, me, you, us, them。
第二点:want 想要; want to do sth. 想做某事; want doing 客观需要或缺乏。
48. Your hair wants _B_. You'd better have it done tomorrow.
A cut B cutting C to cut D being cut
注意:want doing 中doing表示的是被动含义。
18. This room is so dirty that it wants _A_.
A cleaning B to clean C being cleaned D cleaned
第三点:mean 意味; mean to do sth. 打算做某事,意欲… ;mean doing 意味着,…的意思是…
25. There's a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _B_ trouble. [reception desk 接待台]
A making B to make C to have made D having made
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55. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.
A to erect B be erected C erecting D being erected
watch 看电视用,看比赛用; see 看电影用;
感官动词watch, see, hear; 感官动词 + 名词(代词)+ do
be erected 强调的是动作的结果; being erected 强调的是动作的过程。
56. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.
A gives up B gives in C gives away D gives off
give up 放弃; give in 屈服,让步; give off 释放,放出(烟和气体);
give away 泄露,走漏风声;婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程;赠送礼品。
57. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.
A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing
keep sb. + 分词; inform v. 通知,告知; inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情
keep me informed 使我被告知。
60. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.
A after which B for which C with which D at which
fight with sb. (注意要看整个句子); fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。
I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。
61. I should like to rent a house, modern, comfortable and _B_ in a quiet neighborhood.
A all in all B above all C after all D over all
all in all 总而言之;above all 首先,尤其是;after all 毕竟,终究;overall 全面的,总体的
in a word 总之,in short 简而言之,in conclusion 最后,总之,to sum up总之,总而言之。
62. _B_ we have finished the course, we shall start doing more revision work.
A For now B Now that C Ever since D By now
now that 既然,由于(相当于since); ever since 自从…以来。
与that搭配且后面可以加句子的几个表达形式:
now that 既然,由于; in that 因为; except that 除…之外。
except后面加名词或代词;except that后面加句子。
63. What you have done is _D_ the doctor’s orders.
A attached to B responsible to C resistant to D contrary to
be attached to 连接,附属; This school is attached to Beida. 这所学校附属于北大。
responsible to 对…负有责任; resistant adj. 反抗的,抵抗的; water resistant 防水的。
be contrary to 与..相反(相违背)。
64. John reGREtted _A_ to the meeting last week.
A not going B not to go C not having been going D not to be going
reGREt doing 后悔做过某事; regret to do sth. 遗憾的做某事(应用语境非常有限)。
63. We reGREt to inform you that the materials you ordered are _B_.
A out of work B out of stock C out of reach D out of practice
out of work 失业; out of reach 够不着 within reach 够得着; out of practice 缺乏练习。
65. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.
A carried out B carried off C carried on D carried forward
in spite of 尽管; carry on 坚持,继续。
66. Mrs. Brown is supposed _A_ for Italy last week.
A to have left B to be leaving C to leave D to have been left
be supposed to do sth. 应该(理应)做某事。
37. He’s watching TV? He’s _D_ to be cleaning his room.
A known B considered C regarded D supposed
regard as 把…认作
67. My camera can be _B_ to take pictures in cloudy or sunny conditions.
A treated B adjusted C adopted D remedied
treat 对待,处理; I’ll treat you. 我请客,应用于真正请客之前。It’s on me. 应用于结帐时。
adjust vt. 调整,调节; adopt vt. 收养,领养; remedy vt. 弥补,补救,修正;
68. A new technique _C_, the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.
A working out B having worked out
C having been worked out D to have been worded out
yields 产量; work out 作出,推出
关于百分数之前介词的用法
increase to 80 percent 增加到80% (增加到用to)
increase by 60 percent增加了60% (表示增加的幅度用by)
55. Between 1974 and 1997, the number of overseas visitors expanded _A_ 27%.
A by B for C to D in
69. Children who are over-protected by their parents may become _C_.
A hurt B damaged C spoiled D harmed
spoil vt. 宠坏,溺爱
70. When Mr. Jones gets old, he will _B_ over his business to his son.
A take B hand C think D get
take over 接管接收; hand over 移交,交出; think over 仔细考虑; get over 克服,战胜。
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41. We had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so let’s have _A_ one this month.
A another B more C the other D other
不定代词:1 两者中的一个用one;另一个则用the other; 2 很多东西中的一个用one;
剩下的所有叫the others; 3 很多东西中的一个用one;剩下的所有里面再拿一个叫another;
在剩下的里面再拿一个还叫another(单数概念); 4 很多东西中拿了若干出来用some;
剩下所有叫others; other 后通常要加可数名词的复数形式; more 要用在数词的后面
once more 再来一个(用于很不正式的场合) vravo 再来一个(用于正式场合)
44. No aGREement was reached in the discussion as neither side would give way to _A_.
A the other B any other C another D other
neither 两者中任意一者都不
42. It was difficult to guess what her _B_ to the news would be.
A impression B reaction C comment D opinion
reaction n. 反应; reaction to 对…作出反应。
43. I decided to go to the library as soon as I _D_.
A finish what I did B finished what I did
C would finish what I was doing D finished what I was doing
as soon as所引导的时间状语从句与主句的时态搭配有一种情况是主从句都用一般过去时。
45. We are interested in the weather because it _B_ us so directly what we wear, what we do, and even how we feel.
A benefits B affects C guides D effects
affect vt. 影响; effect n. 影响。
46. Will all those _D_ the proposal raise their hands?
A in relation to B in contrast to C in excess of D in favor of
in relation to 与…相比; in contrast to 与…形成对照;
in excess of 超过,超出(一定的限定范围); in favor of 赞同,支持。
47. Children are very curious _D_.
A at heart B in person C on purpose D by nature
at heart 在心理,在内心; heart 强调的是内心的感情,mind 强调的是思维,头脑,soul 灵魂
in person 亲自,本人; on purpose 有意的,故意的; by nature 生性(天性)使然。
48. The match was cancelled because most of the members _A_ a match without a standard court.
A objected to having B were objected to have
C objected to have D were objected to having
58. The man in the corner confessed to _B_ a lie to the manager of the company.
A have told B having told C being told D be told
confess v. 忏悔; confess to 承认,坦白。
49. The teacher doesn’t permit _C_ in class.
A smoke B to smoke C smoking D to have a smoke
permit v. 允许,准许; permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事; permit doing 允许做某事。
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21. As we can no longer wait for the delivery of our order, we have to _D_ it.
A postpone B refuse C delay D cancel
22. These books, which you can get at any bookshop, will give you _A_ you need.
A all the information B all the informations
C all of information D all of the informations
23. Not until the game had begun _C_ at the sports ground.
A had he arrived B would he have arrived C did he arrive D should he have arrived
24. Young people are not _B_ to stand and look at works of art; they want art they can participate in. [参与,参加]
A conservative B content C confident D generous
conservative adj. 保守的; conservative party 保守党; content adj. 甘愿的,满足的;
confident adj. 自信的,有信心的; generous adj. 慷慨的,大方的。
25. Most broadcasters maintain that TV has been unfairly criticized and argue that the power of the medium is _C_.
A granted B implied C exaggerated D remedied
maintain 坚持认为; medium n. 媒体单数,media n. 媒体复数;
grant vt. 授予,给予; imply vt. 隐含,暗示; exaggerate v. 夸大,夸张,高估;
remedy vt. 弥补,补救,修正。
26. These surveys indicate that many crimes go _A_ by the police, mainly because not all victims report them. [victims 受害人]
A unrecorded B to be unrecorded C unrecording D to have been unrecorded
27. I have no objection _B_ your story again. [object to + 动名词]
A to hear B to hearing C to having heard D to have heard
28. The clothes a person wears may express his _B_ or social position.
A curiosity B status C determination D significance
status n. 身份,地位; significance n. 意义,重要性;
29. By law, when one makes a large purchase, he should have _D_ opportunity to change his mind.
A accurate B urgent C excessive D adequate
accurate adj. 精确的; urgent adj. 紧急的,紧迫的; excessive adj. 过多的,过度的;
adequate adj. 充足的,足够的。
30. You will see this product _B_ wherever you go.
A to be advertised B advertised C advertise D advertising
31. The early pioneers had to _C_ many hardships to settle on the new land.
A go along with B go back on C go through D go into
go through 经历
32. The suggestion that the major _B_ the prizes was accepted by everyone.
A would present B present C presents D ought to present
suggestion, suggest 所引导的句子都用虚拟语气。 should + (动词原形)
34. Peter, who had been driving all day, suggested _B_ at the next town.
A to stop B stopping C stop D having stopped
suggest + doing也可以
33. Beer is the most popular drink among male drinkers, _A_ overall consumption is significantly higher than that of women.
A whose B which C that D what
whose指代的就是他前面的male drinkers.
35. I didn't know the word. I had to _C_ a dictionary.
A look out B make out C refer to D go over
look up 查阅; look up a word in a dictionary 在字典中查单词;
reference n. 参考书目; reference room 资料室;
36. The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _D_ his arguments in favour of the new theory. [sufficient 充足的,足够的;grounds 论据;arguments 论点]
A to be based on B to base on C which to base on D on which to base
base vt. 以…作基础,基于… which引导从句时,如果从句是介词结尾则介词应在which之前。
on which (he is) to base
37. There are signs _A_ restaurants are becoming more popular with families.
A that B which C in which D whose
sign n. 迹象; fact n. 事实; evidence n. 证据;后面常加同位语从句来说明具体内容。
同位语从句用that(不能省略)引导。
38. I think I was at school, _A_ I was staying with a friend during the vacation when I heard the news. [or else 否则,要不然]
A or else B and then C or so D even so
39. It is said that the math teacher seems _A_ towards bright students.
A partial B beneficial C preferable D liable
partial adj. 偏袒的,偏爱的(经常与to或towards搭配)
40. In order to show his boss what a careful worker he was, he took _C_ trouble over the figures. [figures 数目,数据;extra 额外的,附加的]
A extensive B spare C extra D supreme
41. - "May I speak to your manager Mr. Williams at five o'clock tonight?"
- "I'm sorry. Mr. Williams _A_ to a conference long before then."
A will have gone B had gone C would have gone D has gone
当要表达将来的行为在将来的某时间之前完成用将来完成时,将来完成时结构:will have + p.p.
42. You _D_ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.
A shouldn't follow B mustn't follow
C couldn't' have been following D shouldn't have been following
should have + p.p. 本应该; shouldn’t have + p.p. 本不应该
43. The growth of part-time and flexible working patterns, and of training and retraining schemes, _D_ more women to take advantage of employment opportunities.
A have allowed B allow C allowing D allows
part-time 兼职; full-time 全职; flexible working patterns 弹性工作制; training 培训;
retraining 再培训; take advantage 利用;
44. Everybody _A_ in the hall where they were welcomed by the secretary.
A assembled B accumulated C piled D joined
assembled 聚集; secretary 书记。
45. Putting in a new window will _B_ cutting away part of the roof.
A include B involve C contain D comprise
involve 引起,与…直接有关
46. Living in the western part of the country has its problems, _C_ obtaining fresh water is not the least. [the least 最高级]
A with which B for which C of which D which
42. Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, _C_ obtaining water is not the least. [the least 最高级]
A for which B to which C of which D in which
47. In the _C_ of the project not being a success, the investors stand to lose up to million. [in the event of 万一,如果]
A face B time C event D course
in the face of 面对; in the time of 在…时期; in the course of 在…期间。
48. The manager would rather his daughter _D_ in the same office.
A had not worked B not to work C does not work D did not work
would rather + 动词原形; would rather + 句子(用虚拟语气,句子谓语动词用一般过去时)
49. _D_, he does get annoyed with her sometimes.
A Although much he likes her B Much although he likes her
C As he likes her much D Much as he likes her
如果用although引导则应改成:Although he likes her very much, …
50. The British constitution is _B_ a large extent a product of the historical events described above. [无论是在空格前还是后,如果出现了名词extent要找介词就着to]
A within B to C by D at
to a large extent 在很大程度上。


第3课
倒装:倒装有全部倒装和部分倒装。
谓语部分所有单词都放在主语前是全部倒装。谓语的一部分放在主语的前面是部分倒装。
谓语中的一部分通常是指:1、系动词;2、助动词;3、情态动词。
全部倒装的五条原则:
1. There be句型(表示有);
2. 以There或now开头的句子,且句子谓语动词为come或go;
There you go again. 你又去那里了。
3. 以Here开头的句子,且句子谓语动词为系动词be; Here you are. 拿去。
4. 以副词out, in, up, down, away开头的句子;
在2、3、4前提下,如果句子的主语是代词则用陈述句语序。
5. 以状语(常见的是地点状语)开头的句子。
部分倒装的六条原则:
1. so放在句首时表示承前肯定,这个句子用部分倒装;
nor, neither放在句首时表示承前否定,句子也用部分倒装;
2. 省略了引导词if 的虚拟条件从句,可以把从句中的had, should, could, were中的任何一个提到从句最前面的位置,构成部分倒装;
3. as, though表示“尽管”时引导从句,从句中的表语可以置于引导词之前构成部分倒装;
系动词后面的部分就是表语,形容词、名词、名词性短语可以置于系动词之后。
例如:She is beautiful. They are students.
四级考试中出现的是由动词的过去分词转变的形容词作表语的形式。
26. _B_ as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention.
A Being published B Published C Publishing D To be published
当题干是as引导一个从句,且as前为一个空格时他表示的就是尽管,空格处要填的就是表语。
being published 正在被出版; to be published 将要被出版。
此句恢复正常语序应为: As it was published at such a time …
4. 表示否定含义的单词或短语放在句首,句子用部分倒装;
常见的一些表示否定含义的单词:never, little, few, hardly (… when), scarcely (… when) ;
seldom 难得,不常;nowhere 哪里都不。
常见的一些表示否定含义的短语:in no way 决不; on no account 决不;
under no circumstances 在任何情况下都不。
5. only + 状语放在句首,句子用部分倒装;(如果only去掉就是全部倒装)
43. Only under special circumstances _C_ to take make-up tests.
A permitted are freshmen B freshmen are permitted
C are freshmen permitted D are permitted freshmen
freshmen 新生; make up for 弥补,补偿; make-up tests 补考(缓考)。
6. 注意两个表达形式:come what may 无论发生什么情况; say what you will 畅所欲言。
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强调句式的补充内容:被强调部分是疑问词时的情况。
60. When I try to understand _C_ that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes.
A why it does B what it does C what it is D why it is
prevent sb. from doing sth. 妨碍(阻止)某人做某事。
强调部分本为: it is what that prevents so many …
又因为句中有疑问词,应写为: what is it that prevents so ...
但强调句式在句中作宾语成分,故正确写法为: what it is that …
50. I like watching TV _C_ to the cinema.
A more than to go B than going C more than going D rather than to go
than 除构成固定短语外就要与比较级搭配,不会单独出现; rather than + 动词原形;
平行结构,遇到平行结构时应做的两步:
1 找出连接词,2 使要填部分与已给出的对应部分形式完全一样。
51. I appreciate _D_ to your home.
A to be invited B to have invited C having invited D being invited
appreciate + 动名词(不能加动词原形,不能加句子)。
41. I would appreciate _B_ it a secret.
A you to keep B your keeping C that you keep D that you will keep
your keeping 动名词的复合结构。 you keeping 也是正确的。
52. I hope my teacher will take my recent illness into _C_ when judging my examination.
A regard B counting C account D observation
take sth. into account 考虑。
54. Important people don’t often have much free time as their work _C_ all their time.
A take away B take over C take up [占据] D take in
55. When I was very young, I was terribly frightened of school, but I soon ___ it.
A got off B got across C got away D got over
got over it 克服战胜。
56. Many people complain of the rapid _C_ of modern life.
A rate B speed C pace D growth
pace 节奏; rapid pace of modern life现在生活快节奏。
57. San Francisco is usually cool in the summer, but Los Angeles _B_.
A is rarely B rarely is C hardly is D is scarcely
rarely, usually 都是频度副词。通常频度副词的位置在系动词之后,表示实在意思的词前面。
58. The speaker, _D_ for her splendid speeches, was warmly received by the audience.
A having known B being known C knowing D known
know 没有现在分词;know 用主动形式时只能和两个介词搭配:of, about。
known for 以…而著名。
60. I couldn’t find _A_, and so I took this one.
A a large enough coat B an enough large coat
C a large coat enough D a coat enough large
enough 修饰形容词时要放到形容词后面。
61. I always _B_ what I have said.
A get to B hold to C lead to D see to
本题所有选项中的to都是介词,其后加动词动名词的形式。
hold to 坚守,信守; see to 负责做,处理,照料(后面加的都是某件事情,不加人)
62. No sooner had we reached the top of the hill _C_ we all sat down to rest.
A when B then C than D until
no sooner … than 一…就…
63. Evidence came up _C_ specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.
A what B which C that D whose
evidence 证据、sign 迹象、fact 事实,后面都要带同位语从句,且从句用that引导。
64. He moved away from his parents, and missed them _A_ enjoy the exciting life in New York. [too … to,太…而不能…]
A too much to B enough to C very much to D much so as to
65. He was _C_ of having asked such a silly question.
A sorry B guilty C ashamed D miserable
guilty adj. 有罪的; be ashamed of 因…而羞愧(不好意思)的; miserable adj. 悲惨的。
66. The last time we had a family reunion was _B_ my brother's wedding ceremony four years ago.
A in B at C during D over
ceremony n. 典礼,仪式。要表达在某典礼(仪式)上用介词at。
at the graduation ceremony 在毕业典礼上。
67. What _A_ would happen if the director knew you felt that way?
A do you suppose B you suppose C will you suppose D you would suppose
do you supposed 常做插入语。
68. _D_ the advances of science, the discomforts of old age will no doubt always be with us. [despite prep. 尽管; as for 关于,至于]
A As for B Besides C Except D Despite
69. How close parents are to their children _B_ a strong influence on the character of the children.
A have B has C having D to have
influence on 对…造成影响,很大的影响中形容词用的是strong。
70. He _A_ when the bus came to a sudden stop.
A was almost hurt B was hurt himself C was to hurt himself D was hurting himself
hurt oneself 自残; be to + 动词原形,将要做某事;
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41. Jean did not have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy _C_ for her examination.
A to prepare B to be prepared C preparing D being prepared
be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事
42. Five minutes earlier, _A_ we could have caught the last train.
A and B but C or D an order
and 在这里表示一种结果,翻译成“那么(和)”。只有两种情况下and才会这样翻译:
1. 省略句 + and + 句子; 2. 祈使句 + and + 句子。
47. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you _B_ advertisements showing happy balanced families.
A are often seeing B will often see C often see D have often seen
43. I cannot give you _D_ for the type of car you sell because there is no demand for it in the market.
A an expense B a charge C a purchase D an order
order n. 定购,订单; purchase n. 购买。
45. By the end of this month, we surely _C_ a satisfactory solution to the problem.
A have found B will be finding C will have found D are finding
如果一个句子的时间状语是由by引导的,则时态要选择完成时态。
将来的行为在将来的某个时间之前就已完成用将来完成时。
solution to a problem 一个问题的解决方案。
46. Mr. Wilson said that he did not want to _A_ any further responsibilities.
A take on B get on C put up D look up
take on 承担; take on responsibility 承担责任。
47. Having no money but _B_ to know, he simply said he would go without dinner.
A not to want anyone B not wanting anyone C wanted no one D to want no one
dinner n. 正餐(多指晚餐); supper n. 夜宵,晚餐; breakfast n. 早餐; lunch n. 午餐;
brunch n. 早午餐。[but前后的句子要平衡]
48. We desire that the tour leader _A_ us immediately of any change in plans.
A inform B informs C informed D has informed
desire v. 要求,表要求时后面加句子要用虚拟语气, (should) + 动词原形。
其他同样用法的词还有ask, demand, request, require.
49. Not _B_, the process of choosing names varies widely from culture to culture.
A obviously B surprisingly C particularly D normally
not surprisingly 一点也不奇怪。 vary vi. 变化。
vary from … to … 从一种形式变化到另一种形式。vary between … and … 在两者之间进行变化。
29. Features such as height, weight, and skin color _B_ from individual to individual and from face to face.
A change B vary C alter D convert
individual n. 个人,个体; individualism n. 个人主义。
44. The hope, goals, fears and desires _D_ widely between men and women, between the rich and the poor.
A alter B shift C transfer D vary
50. A man escaped from the prison last night. It was a long time _A_ the guards discovered what had happened.
A before B until C since D when
It + 系动词 + 一段时间 + before引导的句子 在…之前花费多少时间。
54. Scientists say it may be five or ten years _D_ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.
A since B when C after D before
51. In the experiment we kept a watchful eye _D_ the developments and recorded every detail. [keep a watchful eye on 密切主意,留神]
A in B at C for D on
52. There's little chance that mankind would _D_ a nuclear war.
A retain B endure C maintain D survive
retain vt. 保持,保留; endure v. 忍受; maintain vt. 维持,保持,坚持认为;
survive vi. 生存; vt. 活过 … (宾语为某种灾难)。 survive a flood 活过一场洪水。
前缀sur表示过 … ,外,超; vive 表示生活,强调活着。
54. They usually have less money at the end of the month than _C_ at the beginning.
A which is B which was C they have D it is
less … than句子前后要平衡结构。
55. In the course of a day students do far more than just _A_ classes.
A attend B attended C to attend D attending
far more than 远远多于,远不止于;也要句子前后平衡结构。
56. The French pianist [n. 钢琴师] who had been praised very highly _C_ to be a GREat disappointment.
A turned up B turned in C turned out D turned down
turn up 后面不加宾语表示出现,后面加宾语表示将声音调高,调大;
turn in + 宾语 上缴,交出; turn down 将声音调低,调小;拒绝;
refuse sb. 指直接的回绝; turn sb. down 则指委婉的拒绝;
turn out + 动词不定式 最终证明是,结果是。
57. Many difficulties have _B_ as a result of the change over to a new type of fuel.
A risen B arisen C raised D arrived
因本句未加宾语,估不应选不及物动词,可排除C项; arrive vi. 到达,抵达;
rise vi. 升起,升高(侧重指旗帜或太阳升起);数量的增高(侧重指水位、价位);
the sun rises in the east and sets in the west 太阳东升西落。
arise vi. 升起,升高,出现,发生(经常与抽象名词联用)。
69. A completely new situation will _B_ when the examination system comes into existence.
A arise B rise C raise D arouse
33. Last year the advertising rate _D_ by 20 percent.
A raised B aroused C arose D rose
58. He made such a _D_ contribution to the university that they are naming one of the new buildings after him.
A genuine B minimum C modest D generous
name after 以…的名字来命名。genuine adj. 真正的,货真价实的; genuine leather 真皮;
minimum adj. 最低的,最小的; modest adj. 谦虚谨慎的,适度的;
generous adj. 慷慨的,慷慨大方的(修饰贡献等用这个)。
59. Helen was much kinder to her youngest child than she was to the others, _D_, of course, made the others jealous.
A who B that C what D which
which在这里是引导非限定性定语从句,which引导非限定性定语从句有2个特点:
1. which前面有逗号与其他句子分开。 2. which指的是前面整句话的内容。
as也可以引导非限定性定语从句,指的都是一句话的内容。
which指一句话的内容只能置于该句之后,而as既可以在后也可以在前。
67. _C_ is known to the world, Mark Twain is GREat American writer.
A That B Which C As D It
60. In the advanced course students must take performance tests at monthly _B_.
A gaps B intervals C length D distance
interval n. 间隔(即可指空间间隔,也可指时间间隔),四级考试中专考时间间隔的概念。
interval是固定与介词at搭配的。
23. Students or teachers can participate in excursions to lovely beaches around the island at regular _D_.
A gaps B rate C length D intervals
at regular rate 以规则的速度; at regular interval 以规则的时间间隔;
61. Mr. Johnson preferred _A_ heavier work to do.
A to be given B to be giving C to have given D having given
64. Our company decided to _D_ the contract because a number of the conditions in it had not been met.
A destroy B resist C assume D cancel
65. She is _C_ a musician than her brother.
A much of B much as C more of D more as
be of 具有某种性质、品质或特点;
66. Having been found guilty, the man was given a severe _B_ by the judge.
A service B sentence C crime D crisis
sentence n. 判决,判刑; crisis n. 危机; economic crisis 经济危机;
68. The residents, _C_ had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross.
A all their homes B all whose homes C all of whose homes D all of their homes
当给出了句子的主语,且后面有两部分谓语动词,这两部分谓语动词之间又没有连接词,
时态也不同时,离主语近的谓语动词应为从句的组合成分。
69. You can't afford to let the situation get worse. You must take _D_ to put it right.
A decisions B directions C sides D steps
take steps 采取措施,采取行动; take measures 采取措施;
70. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I _B_ your advice.
A follow B had followed C would follow D have followed
if only 如果,要是...就好了,其后面的句子一定要用虚拟语气。
1. 如果if only后面的句子表示与现在或将来的事实相反,这时谓语动词用一般过去时体现虚拟语气。
2. 如果if only后面的句子表示与过去的事实相反,这时谓语动词用过去完成时体现虚拟语气。
47. If only the committee _D_ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible
A approve B will approve C can approve D would approve
如果if only后面的句子表示与现在或将来的事实相反,这时谓语动词用一般过去时,
也可以用would + 动词原形。
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42. Mark often attempts to escape _C_ whenever he breaks traffic regulations.
A having been fined B to have been fined C being fined B to be fined
escape + 动名词。
44. It is recommended that the project _A_ until all the preparations have been made.
A not be started B will not be started C is not started D is not to be started
recommend vt. 推荐,建议,后面加句子要用虚拟语气,谓语动词的形式:(should) + 动词原形
45. I wish I _D_ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.
A have slept B slept C might have slept D could have slept
wish 后面的句子要用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用:情态动词 + have + 动词过去分词。
might经常被翻译成或许。
46. We didn't know his telephone number, otherwise we _D_ him.
A had telephoned B must have telephoned
C would telephone D would have telephoned
otherwise, or等表示“否则”的词,后面句子都要用虚拟语气。
48. While people may refer to television for up-to-minute news [最新的消息], it is unlikely that television _A_ the newspaper completely.
A will replace B have replaced C replace D replaced
49. An Olympic Marathon [马拉松] is 26 miles and 385 yards, approximately [大约] _B_ from Marathon to Athens [雅典].
A distance B the distance C is the distance D the distance is
50. You will want two trees about ten feet apart, from _D_ to suspend your tent.
A there B them C where D which
介词 + which + 动词不定式(to do sth.) 整体做定语。
本句可改写为:You will want two tress about ten feet apart, to suspend your tent from.
只要见到有介词出现在空格之前,而选项中有which, them, there, where等词则应选which。
51. As I was just getting familiar with this job, I had _C_ to ask my boss.
A many B most C much D more
当many没有修饰任何其他词而单独出现时表示很多人。 much在这里相当于many things。
52. _A_ quite recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home.
A Until B Before C From D Since
until recently 直到最近; not surprisingly 一点也不奇怪。
53. The survival of civilization as we know it is _C_ threat.
A within B towards C under D upon
under threat 受到威胁。
55. In some countries, _D_ is called "equality" [平等] does not really mean equal rights for all people.
A which B one C that D what
that可以引导主语从句,但只做引导词而不充当任何成分。
56. I walked too much yesterday and _A_ are still aching now.
A my leg muscles B my muscles of leg C my leg's muscles D my muscles of the leg
英语中一个名词修饰另外一个名词时第一个名词要用单数。 apple trees, eye drops
57. Radio, television and press _B_ of conveying news and information.
A are the most three common means B are the three most common means
C are the most common three means D are three the most common means
几个词修饰一个名词时修饰词的顺序应为:1. 定冠词the应该放在最前面(离名词最远)的位置;
2. 数词应放在第二位;3. 最后考虑其他形容词。
58. Liquids are like solids _C_ they have a definite volume.
A with that B for that C in that D at that
三个与that的搭配的表达形式:now that, in that [因为], except that。
59. When a fire _C_ at the National Exhibition in London, at least ten priceless paintings were completely destroyed.
A broke off B broke down C broke out D broke up
break out (火灾、战争)突然发生,爆发;
60. The destruction of these treasures was a loss for mankind that no amount of money could _D_. [make up for 弥补]
A stand up to B put up with C come up with D make up for
61. Then the speaker _B_ the various factors leading to the present economic crisis.
A went after B went into C went for D went on
go after 追求,设法得到; go into 谈论,叙述; go for 袭击/支持; go on 继续。
62. The students was just about to _C_ the questions, when suddenly he found the answer
A arrive at B submit to C give up D work out
63. When there are small children around, it is necessary to put bottles of pills out of _B_.
A hand B reach C hold D place
out of reach 够不着; within reach 够得找。
64. The _D_ of blood always makes him feel sick.
A form B look C view D sight
form n. 形式,形状; view n. 风景,景色/视野,视域; look 指的是主观有意识的看;
sight n. 看见,瞥见(不强调主客观)。
66. Free medical treatment in this country covers sickness of mind as well as _B_ sickness
A normal B ordinary C average D regular
sickness of mind 精神病; normal adj. 正常的; average adj. 平均的,中等水平的;
regular adj. 有规律的,规则的; ordinary sickness 一般性疾病。
68. Although he had looked through all the reference material on the subject, he still found it hard to understand this point and her explanation only _C_ to his confusion.
A extended B amounted C added [add to 增加] D turned
70. It took him several months to ___ the wild horse.
A tend B cultivate C tame D breed
tame vt. 驯服; breed 强调的是繁殖,侧重指大批量的繁殖。
It take sb. sometime to do sth. 做某事花了某人多少时间。


第4课
主谓一致:指的就是给出主语,要求判断谓语动词是用单数还是复数的问题。
一、就近原则:
指句子的主语由两部分单词或短语构成时,由离谓语动词近的那部分主语来决定谓语动词的单复数。
只有当以下单词或短语连接主句的两部分时就近原则才适用:
1. or 或者; 2. either … or … 不是…就是… ,…或… ; 3. neither … nor … 既不…也不… ;
4. not only … but also … 不但…而且… ; 5. not … but … 不是…而是…
例如:主语1 or 主语2 谓语动词。 此时由主语2决定谓语动词。
10. _C_ either he or his accountants going to claim for the loss?
A Are B Where C Is D Does
如果题目改变为:Either he or his accountants ___ going … 则应选A
二、句子谓语动词一定用复数的两种情况:
1. 集合名词做主语,集合名词没有复数形式,因为他本身就代表一个复数概念。
常见的几个复合名词: people 人民,人们; police 警察; cattle 牛; poultry 家禽。
2. 表示数量的复数名词 + 不可数名词,整体做主语时
例如:去年出口了八百万顿煤。 Eight million tons of coal were exported last year.
三、谓语动词一定用单数的六种情况:
1. 句子的主语是由从句充当的、动词不定式短语作主语、动名词短语作主语;
2. 表示时间、重量、长度、价值四方面的词做主语;
399. -- “How many days?”
0 -- “Did you say that five days _C_ required to complete that work?”
A are B were C was D is
3. 表示单数概念的主语,短语,谓语动词,此时谓语动词也用单数;
因为此结构中短语只是对主语提供附加说明情况,所以谓语动词也用单数。
当以下这些标志性的介词或介词短语出现在此结构中时可以不管中间的附加说明情况:
with, together with, like, except, besides, in addition to, rather than, as well as
注意:表示复数概念的主语,短语,谓语动词,此时谓语动词应用复数。
4. each, every, either, some, any, no,由以上六个词中任何一个所构成的复合代词作主语时;
some经常构成的三个复合代词:something, somebody, someone;
no经常构成的三个复合代词:nothing, nobody, no one; either of + 短语;
5. 通常由and连接两部分这种形式做主语谓语动词要用复数,但在以下两种情况下则应用单数;
1> and连接的两部分指的是同一事物;
2> and连接的两部分被no, each, every中任何一个词修饰时;
例如:每位男士和女士都要着装得体。 be supposed to do sth. 理应,应该做某事。
Every man and every woman is supposed to dress properly.
11. Many an airplane _B_ in the exhibition.
A are shown B has been shown C has shown D show them
many a(an) 很多,相当于many; many a(an) + 可数名词单数,做主语时谓语动词用单数。
6. many a (an) + 可数名词单数,作主语时谓语动词用单数。
9. Not only Joan but her sisters _B_ the combination to the safe which contains the list of the family securities.
A have known B know C knows D is knowing
not only … but also … 的一种变形形式,not only … but …
另一种变形形式not only … but … as well
combination n. 密码; combination to the safe 保险箱密码; securities有价证券。
-------------------------2000-01-------------------------
41. She ought to stop work; she has a headache because she _A_ too long.
A has been reading B had read C is reading D read
had read 过去完成时要与一般过去时搭配。
has been reading 现在完成进行时:指某行为从过去一点到现在一直在进行。
42. Niagara Falls is a GREat tourist _B_, drawing millions of visitors every year.
A attention B attraction C appointment D arrangement
tourist attraction 旅游胜地; attention n. 注意力; appointment n. 委任的职位,约会;
date n. 日期,约会,枣;表示约会时指的是异性之间的私人约会。 arrangement n. 布置,安排
blind date 两人第一次见面的约会。 appointment 指公事性质的,比较正式的约会。
43. I don't mind _B_ the decision as long as it is not too late.
A you to delay making B your delaying making
C your delaying to make D you delay to make
mind 后要加动名词; delay v. 耽搁,延误(后面也要加动名词)
45. Corn originated in the New World and thus was not known in Europe until Columbus found it _A_ in Cuba.
A being cultivated B been cultivated C having cultivated D cultivating
46. The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the audience _C_ on benches, chairs or boxes.
A having seated B seating C seated D having been seated
注意:seat是及物动词,及物动词用主动形式,后面要直接加宾语。
Be seated please. 请坐。 英语中只有及物动词才有被动语态。
47. This kind of glasses manufactured by experienced craftsmen _B_ comfortably.
A is worn B wears C wearing D are worn
当wear表穿戴时,而句子的主语是被穿戴的东西时,wear是不及物动词,没有被动语态。
65. The coming of the railways in the 1830s _A_ our society and economic life.
A transformed B transported C transferred D transmitted
字根trans在四级中着重考的含义是“从一个地方到另一个地方”。
transform 改革,变革,改变; transport 运输; transfer 转移,移动;
transmit 传送,播送;疾病的传染,传播; transplant 移植。
48. Some diseases are _D_ by certain water animals.
A transplanted B transformed C transported D transmitted
49. Wouldn't you rather your child _B_ to bed early?
A go B went C would go D goes
would rather的两种用法:1 would rather + 动词原形;
2 would rather + 句子(句子谓语动词用一般过去时体现虚拟语气)。
50. Although Anne is happy with her success she wonders _B_ will happen to her private life. [wonder后面要加疑问词]
A that B what C it D this
51. The words of his old teacher left a _C_ impression on his mind. He is still influenced by them. [lasting adj. 持久的,永久的; liberal adj. 开明的,心胸开阔的]
A long B lively C lasting D liberal
52. Mike's uncle insists _D_ in this hotel.
A staying not B not to stay C that he would not stay D that he not stay
insist的两种用法:1 insist on … 坚持,坚决要求;
2 insist + that引导的从句(从句谓语动词为[should] + 动词原形)
53. We aGREe to accept _D_ they thought was the best tourist guide.
A whatever B whomever C whichever D whoever
they thought是插入语,可以不看; tourist guide 导游。
56. Although many people view conflict as bad, conflict is sometimes useful _C_ it forces people to test relative merits of their attitudes and behaviors.
A by which B to which C in that D so that
句子的意思是:如果冲突以后能回家反省一下自己是好事情。
in that 因为; conflict n. 冲突; relative merits 相比较而言的优点; so that 以至于。
57. He is _A_ about his chances of winning a gold medal in the Olympics next year.
A optimistic B optional C outstanding D obvious
optimistic adj. 乐观的; pessimistic adj. 悲观的; be optimistic about 对…持乐观态度。
optional adj. 随意的,任选的,非强制性的; optional courses 选修课;
outstanding adj. 卓越的,杰出的; obvious adj. 明显的。
58. Sometimes I wish I _B_ in a different time and a different place.
A be living B were living C would live D would have lived
wish后加的句子一定要用虚拟语气。
与现在事实相反,wish后的句子经常用一般过去时来体现虚拟语气。
59. The director was critical _C_ the way we were doing the work.
A at B in C of D with
be critical of 对...爱挑剔的,批评。
60. In a sudden _B_ of anger, the man tore up everything within reach.
A attack B burst C split D blast
within reach 够得着; out of reach 够不着; burst 爆发,迸发;
burst可以与很多词语搭配表示突然发作:
1 能与人的情绪(喜、怒、哀、乐)搭配; 2 能与掌声、笑声搭配。
61. _D_ she realized it was too late to go home.
A No sooner it GREw dark than B Hardly did it grow dark that
C Scarcely had it grown dark than D It was not until dark that
no sooner在句首时句子要用部分倒装;hardly要与when搭配;scarcely也要与when搭配。
62. In Britain people _C_ four million tons of potatoes every year.
A swallow B dispose C consume D exhaust
swallow 吞,咽; dispose 去掉,处理,安排; consume 消费,消耗; consumer 消费者;
exhaust 将资源消耗殆尽;如果与人在一个句子中搭配则表示使人精疲力竭。
63. I'd _A_ his reputation with other farmers and business people in the community, and then make a decision about whether or not to approve a loan.
A take into account B account for C make up for D make out
take into account 考虑; make up for 弥补,补偿。
65. She cooked the meat for a long time so as to make it _D_ enough to eat.
A mild B slight C light D tender
mild adj. 不辣的; hot adj. 辣的; extra hot 极辣的;
light adj. 清淡的,容易消化的;蛋糕点心等松软的; muffin n. 松饼;
slight adj. 轻微的,少量的; tender adj. 肉嫩的。
steak n. 牛排;rare 三成熟的;medium 七成熟的;well-done 全熟的;medium rare 五成熟。
66. We take our skin for granted until it is burned _A_ repair.
A beyond B for C without D under
take sth. for granted 把什么事当成理所当然的而不重视; beyond prep. 超出 … 的范围。
67. The computer revolution may well change society as _C_ as did the Industrial Revolution.
A certainly B insignificantly C fundamentally D comparatively
certainly 当然的,确定无疑的(主观思想较浓厚); insignificantly 没有意义的,无足轻重的;
comparatively 相比较而言的; fundamentally 根本性的,从本质上来说。
68. _C_ in this way, the situation doesn't seem so disappointing.
A To look at B Looking at C Looked at D To be looked at
70. Some women _D_ a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family.
A must make B should have made C would make D could have made
for the sake of为了… ;为了…的利益;
与过去事实相反时用:情态动词 + have + 动词过去分词;
should have + 动词过去分词,表示本应该…
-------------------------1997-06-------------------------
32. You cannot be _B_ careful when you drive a car.
A very B too C so D enough
cannot too 在…也不为过,越…越好。
34. Every man in this country has the right to live where he wants to _A_ the color of his skin. [regardless of 不管,不顾]
A regardless of B in the light of C by virtue of D with the exception of
35. Housewives who do not go out to work feel they are not working to their full _B_.
A strength B capacity C length D possibility
strength n. 力量,体力,实力; capacity n. 才能,才智(能力方面)。
38. The old couple decided to _C_ a boy and a girl though they had three of their own.
A adapt B bring C adopt D receive
39. The government is trying to do something to _D_ better understanding between the two countries.
A raise B increase C heighten D promote
promote better understanding 增进理解。
40. The newspaper did not mention the _A_ of the damage caused by the fire.
A extent B level C range D quantity
extent作核心名词,表示到…程度了,介词用to。
41. The soldier was _A_ of running away when the enemy attacked.
A accused B charged C scolded D punished
be accused of 被指控,被职责; be charged with 被指控。
42. Had he worked harder, he _D_ the exams.
A must have got through B could get through
C would get through D would have got through
had he worked harder (虚拟语气) = if he had worked harder …
与过去事实相反用:情态动词 + have + 动词的过去分词。
45. It seems oil _B_ from this pipe for some time. We'll have to take the machine apart to put it right.
A had leaked B has been leaking C leaked D is leaking
for + 一段时间,做时间状语,谓语动词用完成时态。过去完成时要与一般过去时搭配。
46. When he arrived, he found _C_ the aged and the sick at home.
A nothing but B none other C none but D no other than
形容词前加the表示一类人。 none but 只有,仅有。
47. The pressure _B_ causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a constant emotional strain.
A competing B to compete C to be competed D having competed
the right to vote 选举权。 动词不定式作后置定语要用主动形式。
the pressure to compete 竞争的压力。
49. As teachers we should concern ourselves with what is said, not what we think _C_.
A have to be said B must say C ought to be said D need to say
50. Once environmental damage _A_, it takes many years for the system to recover.
A is done B is to do C does D has done
51. Studies show that the things that contribute most to a sense of happiness cannot be bought, _B_ a good family life, friendship and work satisfaction.
A as for B such as C in case of D in view of
contribute to 对…做出贡献。
52. He will aGREe to do what you require _D_ him.
A for B from C to D of
require sth. of sb. 要求某人做某事。
53. The mere fact _A_ most people believe nuclear war would be madness does not mean that it will not occur.
A that B which C what D why
fact后面要加同位语从句。
54. John seems nice person. _C_, I don't trust him.
A Even though B Therefore C Even so D Though
even so 即便如此,尽管如此。
55. I don't think it advisable that Tom _A_ to the job since he has no experience.
A be assigned B will be assigned C is assigned D has been assigned
advisable后面加句子要用虚拟语气,形式为:(should)+ 动词原形。
56. _D_, a man who expresses himself effectively is sure to succeed more rapidly than a man whose command of language is poor.
A Other things to be equal B Were other things equal
C To be equal to other things D Other things being equal
B项如果不省略if应为:If other things were equal
如果从句用虚拟语气,主句也必须用虚拟语气形式。
other things being equal 在这里是独立主格做条件状语。
57. _C_ that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.
A For B Since C Now D Despite
注意以下三个后面加句子的表达形式:
1 in that 由于,因为; 2 now that 既然,由于; 3 except that 除了…之外。
59. By 1929, Mickey Mouse was as popular _B_ children as Coca-Cola.
A for B with C to D in
be popular with + 人的群体 受…欢迎。
60. Because Edgar was convinced of the accuracy of this fact, he _A_ his opinion.
A stuck to B strove for C stuck at D stood for
be convinced of 深信,确信; stick to 坚持; strive for 力求,拼命争取。
Don’t strive for perfection. 不要凡是都力求达到完美状态。
-------------------------XXXX-XX-------------------------
48. It’s no use _B_ me not to worry.
A you tell B your telling C for you to have told D having told
It's no use + 动名词。 动名词的复合结构,宾格(形容词性物主代词)+ 动名词。
52. If it _A_ too much trouble, I’d love a cup of tea.
A isn’t B wasn’t C weren’t D hadn’t been
一般日常用语,用一般时。
56. She was glad that her success would ___ for the women who would follow.
A make things easier B make it easier C be easier D be easier to make
make for 导致,促成;朝某个方向前进,走向那里。
不要选有代词指代不明的选项。 A项中的things指的是境况,境遇。
60. We object _C_ punishing a whole group for one person’s fault.
A against B about C to D for
68. The newest satellite can _A_ a thousand telephone conversations and a color TV program at the same time.
A carry B extend C bring D take
carry vt. 传送,传输; extend vt. 延伸,延续(extend to 延伸到,延续到)。
fetch vt. 去拿来,去请来,去叫来; fetch water 打水。
-------------------------1995-01-------------------------
41. The GREy building is where the workers live, and the white one is where the spare parts _B_. [spare parts零部件]
A are producing B are produced C produced D being produced
48. _A_ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master's deGREe.
A To become B Become C One become D On becoming
master's deGREe 硕士学位; 当介词on后面加动词ing形式时表示时间概念“在…之后”。
49. The little man was _C_ more than one metre fifty tall.
A nearly B quite C hardly D almost
hardly more than 不足,不到。
36. The little man was _B_ one metre fifty high.
A almost more than B hardly more than C nearly more than D as much as
53. Medical care reform has become this country's most important public health _C_.
A question B stuff C matter D issue
matter 事物,事情; question 有疑而问,并且有待回答的问题;
questions and answers Q & A 问与答; issue n. 问题(强调的是政治方面的问题)。
1999年前,台湾问题Taiwan issue;1999年后,台湾问题Taiwan question,态度转变。
60. If you don't like to swim, you _B_ stay at home.
A should as well B may as well C can as well D would as well
may as well 还是,到不如。
70. They are teachers and don't realize _A_ to start and run a company.
A what it takes B what takes it C what they take D what takes them
start and run a company 创立并经营一家公司。
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23. A healthy life is frequently thought to be _D_ with the open countryside and homegrown food.
A tied B bound C involved D associated
be involved with 牵涉,卷入; be associated with 与...相关,联系起来。
homegrown food 自家种的食品; wine 葡萄酒; house wine 自家的酒。
33. The traditional approach _A_ with complex problems is to break them down into smaller, more easily managed problems.
A to dealing B in dealing C dealing D to deal
approach n. 方式,方法; approach to + 动名词。
43. It's already 5 o'clock now. Don't you think it's about time _C_?
A we are going home B we go home C we went home D we can go home
it's about time后面加句子,要用一般过去时来体现虚拟语气。
44. Lightning is a _A_ of electrical current from a cloud to the ground or from one cloud to another. [Lightning n. 闪电]
A rush B rainbow C rack D ribbon
rush n. 冲撞,冲击,撞击; rainbow n. 彩虹,幻想; rack n. 支架,挂架;
ribbon n. 缎带,丝带,绒带。
46. I've already told you that I'm going to buy it, _A_.
A however much it costs B however does it costs much
C how much does it cost D no matter how it costs
however在这里不表示转折,而是句子的引导词,这种情况下它相当于:no matter how。
意思是,我已经决定要买了,不管多少钱。
47. New York _A_ second in the production of apples, producing 850,000,000 pounds this year. [rank 排名,名列第几,强调名列前茅;Big Apple 纽约]
A ranked B occupied C arranged D classified


第5课
虚拟语气
一、虚拟语气的规则用法:
1主、从句都表示与过去事实相反:
从句的谓语动词用:had + 动词过去分词;
主句的谓语动词用:情态动词 + have + 动词过去分词。
注意:能用于虚拟语气的情态动词只有四个:should, could, would, might.
使用哪一个情态动词要由句子含义决定,考试中出现最多的是could, would.
2 主、从句都表示与现在事实相反:
从句的谓语动词用:动词过去式(如果是be则只能用were)
主句的谓语动词用:情态动词 + 动词原形。
3 主、从句都表示与将来事实相反:
从句的谓语动词用:were to + 动词原形(重点)、should + 动词原形、动词过去式;
主句的谓语动词用:情态动词 + 动词原形。
二、虚拟语气的特殊应用:
1 would rather + 句子,这时句子谓语动词用一般过去时来体现虚拟语气。
2 if only 如果,要是...就好了,if only + 句子,这时句子一定要用虚拟语气。
有两种形式可以体现虚拟语气:
a. 如果该句子如果表示与现在或将来事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。
b. 如果该句子如果表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时。
70. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I _B_ your advice.
A follow B had followed C would follow D have followed
47. If only the committee _D_ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible
A approve B will approve C can approve D would approve
注意:当if only后的句子表示与现在或将来事实相反,该用动词过去式来表示虚拟语气,而选项中又没有时,可以采用这种形式:would + 动词原形。
3 当以下动词后加句子时,句子应用虚拟语气,句子谓语动词的形式是:(should)+ 动词原形。
a. 表示建议、提议的:suggest, advise, propose, recommend, move.
[move只有在表达在会议上提出提议时后面加虚拟语气]
b. 表示要求的:ask, demand, require, request, desire.
c. 表示指挥、命令的:order, command, direct.
d. 表示坚持,坚持认为的:insist.
4 it is + 第三点中动词的过去分词 + that引导的从句。
这样的结构中从句谓语动词形式为:(should)+ 动词原形。
以下几个形容词置于该结构中时也要用相同的形式来体现虚拟语气:
important, necessary, essential, obligatory(有义务的,强制性的,必须的)。
5 第三点中动词相应的名词形式 + that引导从句,该从句同样要用虚拟语气,
谓语动词形式为:(should)+ 动词原形。
经常用于这种结构的词有:suggestion, advice, proposal, recommendation, motion.
6 以下一些表达方式所在的句子一定要用虚拟语气。
or(表示否则), otherwise, unless, but for(若不是,若非)
当遇到含有以上四个表达方式的句子时,先要判断该句是表示与现在、过去、还是将来事实相反,然后依照相应的虚拟语气规则用法的形式来确定句子结构。
含有下面三个表达方式的句子体现虚拟语气的形式是固定的:
lest(以免,防备), for fear that(惟恐), on condition that(在..条件下)
它们后面句子的谓语动词的形式都是:(should)+ 动词原形。
7 it is time 是...的时候了。
这个结构有以下两种变形形式,所用虚拟语气形式都一样:it is high time / it is about time.
这三个结构后面加的句子谓语动词都用一般过去时来体现虚拟语气。
8 注意以下两种情况下should + 动词原形中should不能省略。
这里should表示一种语气,经常被翻译成“竟然”。
a. 四个动词:think, believe, expect, suspect.
它们的否定或者疑问形式后面加句子,句子谓语动词用:should + 动词原形,should不能省略。
I don't believe that he should be cheated. 我不相信他也会被骗。
b. it is a pity, it is a shame 真遗憾,it is strange 真怪
以上三个结构后面加的句子谓语动词用:should + 动词原形,should不能省略。
错综时态的虚拟语气
错综时态的虚拟语气即指主句和从句在表达是与什么时态的事实相反上并不一致(比如主句要表达与现在事实相反而从句要表达与过去事实相反),这种情况要采用“对号入座”的方法来处理,即主从句结构分别采用与其表达时态对应的结构。
60. If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you _A_ now.
A wouldn't be smiling B couldn't have smiled C won't smile D didn't smile
2. If you had studied the problem carefully yesterday, _C_.
A you won’t find any difficulty now B you would not have found any difficulty now
C you would not find any difficulty now D you have not found any difficulty now
3. He would be studying at the university now if he _C_ the entrance examination.
A passed B have passed C had passed D should have passed
16. It is a shame that he _B_ that poor little girl!
A deceived B should deceive C deceive D deceiving
18. Mrs. bliss kept the door and the windows shut lest the noise outside _D_ her son's sleep. [lest(以免,防备) 后面句子的谓语动词的形式都是:(should)+ 动词原形]
A would interfere with B had interfered with
C interfered with D should interfere with
-------------------------1996-01-------------------------
21. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, _C_ and perfected now.
A) developed B have developed C are being developed D will have been developed
22. This ticket _C_ you to a free meal in our new restaurant.
A gives B grants C entitles D credits
A,B两项都要加双宾语,结构为:gives / grants sb. sth.
entitle sb. to sth. 使某人有权得到某物; credit A to B 相信A是由B造成的。
相信飞机失事是由飞行员错误造成的。 Credit the crash to the pilot's mistake.
crash 坠落,坠毁(专指飞机失事); collision 碰撞(强调两个物体碰撞,如火车、汽车等)。
we are sorry, very sorry, terribly sorry, awfully sorry.
23. You _D_ her in her office last Friday; she's been out of town for two weeks.
A needn't have seen B must have seen
C might have seen D can't have seen
24. That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but _D_ the police.
A called in B calling in C call in D to call in
have no choice but to do sth. 别无选择,只能做...
25. She was so _B_ in her job that she didn't hear anybody knocking at the door.
A attracted B absorbed C drawn D concentrated
be attracted by 被…所吸引; be absorbed in 全神贯注(专注)于做…
be drawn in 被诱骗(诱使)做... ; concentrate on 专注于。
I was simply drawn in. 我是被诱骗上钩的。
27. At first, the speaker was referring to the problem of pollution in the country, but halfway in her speech, she suddenly _B_ to another subject.
A committed B switched C favoured D transmitted
switch to another subject 转换话题; switch to another channel 转换频道。
28. It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios _C_ after 11 o'clock at night. [虚拟语气]
A were not played B not to play C not be played D did not play
29. Although I like the appearance of the house, what really made me decide to buy it was the beautiful _D_ through the window.
A vision B look C picture D view
view n. 景色,风景,视野,视域。
30. Cancer is second only _B_ heart disease as a cause of death.
A of B to C with D from
具有比较意味的形容词都要与介词to搭配。
32. The manager needs an assistant that he can _A_ to take care of problems in his absence. [in his absence 在某人不在场的情况下]
A count on B count in C count up D count out
presence n. 到场,出席; in one’s presence 在某人在场的情况下。
count on=depend on 指望,依靠,依赖; count up 算出总数;
count in 把…算在内; count out 把...排除在外。
33. The organization had broken no rules, but _A_ had it acted responsibly.
A neither B so C either D both
34. We gave out a cheer when the red roof of the cottage came _D_ view.
A from B in C before D into
come into view 进入视野,进入眼帘。 cheer n. 欢呼; cheers 干杯;
cheer-team 拉拉队; cheer-leader 拉拉队长。英语中为了…干杯用介词to引起。
to your health 为了你的健康干杯; to friendship为了友谊干杯。 bottom up 先干了。
35. They took _D_ measures to prevent poisonous gases from escaping.
A fruitful B beneficial C valid D effective
take effective measures 采取有效措施。 valid adj. 有效的,成立的。
36. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true _A_ it comes to classroom tests.
A when B since C before D after
sure 做定语时表示“可靠的、稳妥的”。 come to 谈到,提及。
37. Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patients do not take drugs _D_ directed.
A like B so C which D as
drug n. 药品,毒品。 gay adj. 放荡的,快乐的; n. 同性恋者,尤指男性同性恋。
so后面加过去分词表示一种程度。 as后面加过去分词时表示“如同…那样,正如…那样”。
53. I hope all the precautions against air pollution, _D_ suggested by the local government, will be seriously considered here.
A while B since C after D as
precautions n. 防治措施; precautions against 防治…的措施。
after being + 过去分词,注意:after后面不能直接加过去分词。
38. In developing countries people are _C_ into overcrowded cities in GREat numbers.
A breaking B filling C pouring D hurrying
pour into 涌入,蜂拥而入。 break into 强行闯入。
39. It's reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory _A_ by about 10%. [output 产量]
A will have risen B has risen C will be rising D has been rising
表达将来的行为在将来某时间之前完成用将来完成时。
40. If I had remembered _A_ the window, the thief would not have got in.
A to close B closing C to have closed D having closed
remember to do sth. 记得要做某事但没做。
41. There are other problems which I don't propose to _A_ at the moment.
A go into B go around C go for D go up
at the moment 目前,现在。 go into 谈论,讨论。
42. Don't get your schedule _C_; stay with us in this class.
A to change B changing C changed D change
43. It is quite necessary for a qualified teacher to have good manners and _A_ knowledge.
A extensive B expansive C intensive D expensive
extensive adj. 范围广大的,广博的; extensive knowledge 知识渊博。
expansive adj. 扩张的,面积广阔的; expensive adj. 昂贵的,高价的。
intensive adj. 仔细深入的,细致入微的。
54. The patient's health failed to such an extent that he was put into _C_ care.
A tense B rigid C intensive D tight
to such an extent 到如此的程度。 intensive care 特级护理。
44. Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she _B_ a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.
A has to get B were to get C had got D could have got
46. A love marriage, however, does not necessarily _B_ much sharing of interests and responsibilities. [a love marriage因相爱而结婚形成的婚姻]
A take over B result in C hold on D keep to
not necessarily 未必; interests n. 利益。 take over 接管,接收;
result in 导致,结果是; hold on 坚持,挺住; keep to 坚持,遵守。
47. The ability to store knowledge makes computers different form every other machine _A_ invented. [ever adj. 曾经,以往任何时候]
A ever B thus C yet D as
48. I'm not sure whether I can gain any profit from the investment, so I can't make a(n) _C_ promise to help you.
A exact B defined C definite D sure
definite: unlikely to be changed 不可能被改变的; definite promise 不可能被改变的诺言。
49. I have kept that portrait _B_ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London.
A which B where C whether D when
which在定语从句中除了做主语就是做宾语,when在定语从句中只能做时间状语。
remind sb. of sth. 使某人想起某事。
50. The sports meet, originally due to be held last Friday, was finally _D_ because of the bad weather. [sports meet=sports meeting 运动会]
A set off B broken off C worn off D called off
-------------------------1997-01-------------------------
21. Until then, his family _D_ from him for six months.
A didn't hear B hasn't been hearing C hasn't heard D hadn't heard
until then 直到那时。 hear from sb. 收到某人的来信,得到某人的消息。
22. The conference _B_ a full week by the time it ends.
A must have lasted B will have lasted C would last D has lasted
见到介词by引导的时间状语,谓语动词就应是完成时态。
24. Physics is _B_ to the science which was called natural philosophy in history.
A alike B equivalent C likely D uniform
be alike to sb. 对于某人来说均是一样的。 be equivalent to 相当于。
All tastes are alike to him. 所有味道对他来说都一样。
27. The new appointment of our president _A_ from the very beginning of next semester.
A takes effect B takes part C takes place D takes turns
semester n. 学期; president n. 大学校长; take effect 生效,发生效力;
take part in 参与,参加; take place=happen 发生; takes turn to do sth. 轮流做某事。
28. The president made a _A_ speech at the opening ceremony of the sports meeting, which encouraged the sportsmen GREatly.
A vigorous B tedious C flat D harsh
ceremony n. 典礼,仪式;表达在某个典礼上介词用at。 vigorous adj. 强劲有力的,强有力的。
harsh adj. 刺耳的,令人不愉快的; flat adj. 平淡无奇的; tedious adj. 冗长无聊的。
29. It is useful to be able to predict the extent _C_ which a price change will affect supply and demand. [extent to]
A from B with C to D for
30. Finding a job in such a big company has always been _D_ his wildest dreams.
A under B over C above D beyond
beyond one’s wildest dreams 做梦也想不到。
31. It is not easy to learn English well, but if you _C_, you will succeed in the end.
A hang up B hang about C hang on D hang onto
hang on 坚持,继续下去。
32. It is reported that _C_ adopted children want to know who their natural parents are.
A the most B most of C most D the most of
most单独出现的时候有两种词性要考虑:1 adv. 非常;2 adj. 大多数的。
the most后面加多音节的形容词或副词构成该句的最高级。
most of + 名词,表示这些名词中的大多数。 make the most of 充分利用。
34. _D_ before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party. [Were they to arrive=If they were to arrive]
A Had they arrived B Would they arrive C Were they arriving D Were they to arrive
35. The strong storm did a lot of damage to the coastal villages: several fishing boats were _A_ and many houses collapsed.
A wrecked B spoiled C torn D injured
collapse vi. 倒塌,坍塌; wreck vt. (船只)遭到破坏。
torn原形是tear,n. 眼泪,vt. 撕裂,撕开。
37. As _B_ announced in today's papers, the Shanghai Export Commodities Fair is also open on Sundays.
A being B is C to be D been
注意两个非限定性定语从句的引导词:as, which。
which在做非限定性定语从句引导词时有两个特点:
1 which前要有逗号与前面句子分开; 2 which引导非限定性定语从句指的是前面整句话的内容。
只要引导非限定性定语从句as和which都指一句话内容,区别在于which只能放在它所指那句话的后面,而as可以在前面也可以在后面。
38. You see the lightning _A_ it happens, but you hear the thunder later.
A the instant B for an instant C on the instant D in an instant
the instant=as soon as 一…就…
39. The manager lost his _B_ just because his secretary was ten minutes late.
A mood B temper C mind D passion
lose one’s temper 发脾气。
40. GREat as Newton was, many of his ideas _C_ today and are being modified by the work of scientists of our time.
A are to challenge B may be challenged C have been challenged D are challenging
as表示“尽管”时引导从句,从句中的表语可以放在引导词之前构成部分倒装。
41. Please be careful when you are drinking coffee in case you _D_ the new carpet.
A crash B pollute C spot D stain
pollute vt. 污染; spot n. 地点,场所,斑点,污点;v. 使…上有斑点、污点。
spotted dog 斑点狗。 stain v. 弄脏,玷污,染色。
59. The tomato juice left brown _A_ on the front of my jacket.
A spot B point C track D trace
42. I'd rather read than watch television; the programs seem _B_ all the time.
A to get worse B to be getting worse C to have got worse D getting worse
all the time 始终,一直。
43. Convenience foods which are already prepared for cooking are _D_ in grocery stores.
A ready B approachable C probable D available
convenience foods 方便食品; instant coffee/noodle 速容咖啡/速食面。
ready adj. 准备好的; approachable adj. 可接近的,平易近人的,亲切的。
probable adj. 可能的; available adj. 可获得的,可利用的,可支配的。
44. When I caught him _A_ I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.
A cheating B cheat C to cheat D to be cheating
45. It is important that enough money _A_ to fund the project.
A be collected B must be collected C was collected D can be collected
46. Some old people don't like pop songs because they can't _C_ so much noise.
A resist B sustain C tolerate D undergo
tolerate vt. 忍受,容忍; undergo vt. 经历,遭受。
48. _C_ one time, Manchester was the home of the most productive cotton mills in the world. [at one time 曾经,一度]
A On B By C At D Of
49. _A_ it or not, his discovery has created a stir in scientific circles.
A Believe B To believe C Believing D Believed
believe it or not 信不信由你。 creat a stir 引起轰动。
50. Mr. Morgan can be very sad _C_, though in public he is extremely cheerful.
A by himself B in person C in private D as individual
in public 在公众面前; in private 私下单独一个人的时候。


第6课
关于逗号的一些知识
原则:逗号没有能力连接两个单独的句子。
如何区分短语与句子?一个结构如果有完整的谓语部分就是句子。
何为完整的谓语部分?如果能判断出一个结构的时态就可以称这个结构为完整的谓语部分。
在什么样的情况下一个逗号可以将句子分成两部分,而这两部分都有完整的谓语呢?
1 两个句子中间有连接词连接;
2 这两个句子是主从句关系(主从句之间一定要有句子引导词来引导)。
10. Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, but our work _A_, we declined the offer. [declined v. 婉言谢绝]
A not being finished B not having finished
C had not been finished D was not finished
42. A survey was carrie3d out on the death rate of new-born babies in that region, _D_ were surprising. [survey 调查]
A as results B which results C the results of it D the results of which
51. All flights _D_ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could no nothing but take the train. [having been canceled这里是独立主格作原因状语]
A had been canceled B have been canceled
C were canceled D having been canceled
-------------------------1999-01-------------------------
46. _A_ the calculation is right scientists can never be sure that they have included all variables and modeled them accurately. [variable n. 变项,变量;model vt. 建模]
A Even if B As far as C If only D So long as
even if 即使,即便; so long as (后面加句子时)只要。
47. My train arrives in New York at eight o'clock tonight. The plane I would like to take from there _B_ by then.
A would leave B will have left C has left D had left
将来完成时:will have + 动词过去分词。
49. Harry was _A_ by a bee when he was collecting the honey.
A stung B stuck C bitten D scratched
sting v. (蜜蜂)叮,蛰; bite v. (蚊子等)咬; scratch vt. 抓伤,划破(通常指猫抓人)。
once bitten, twice shy. 一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳。
50. The thief tried to open the locked door but _B_.
A in no way B in vain C without effect D at a loss
in vain 徒劳,白费工夫; But很少与介词without联用; at a loss 不知所措。
52. _B_ seeing the damage he had done, the child felt ashamed.
A By B On C At D For
on后面加动词ing形式表示“在…之后”这个时间概念。
54. Research findings show we spend about two hours dreaming every night, no matter what we _C_ during the day.
A should have done B would have done C may have done D must have done
should have + 动词过去分词,表示本应该做; may have + 动词过去分词,表示可能做过;
与过去事实相反的虚拟语气主句谓语动词的表达形式可能用到:would have + 动词过去分词。
must have + 动词过去分词,表示对过去行为进行肯定推测。表示一定做过;
can't have + 动词过去分词,表示对过去行为进行否定推测,表示不可能做过。
56. This crop does not do well in soils[各种土壤] _B_ the one for which it has been specially developed.
A outside B other than C beyond D rather than
outside prep. 在…外边; rather than 而不是(肯定前者,否定后者)。
beyond prep. 超出…的范围; beyond his wildest dreams 超出他最狂野的梦想。
other than 不同于,而非,当它与否定词no或not出现在同一个句子中时表示“除…之外”。
66. In no country _A_ Britain, it has been said, can on experience four seasons in the course of a single day.
A other than B more than C better than D rather than
63. My father seemed to be in no _A_ to look at my school report.
A mood B emotion C attitude D feeling
be in no mood to do/doing sth. 没有情绪(心情)做什么事情。
67. I'm sorry I can't see you immediately; but if you'd like to take a seat, I'll be with you _B_. [in a moment 马上,立即(它作为时间状语时一定与将来时态搭配)= in an instant.]
A for a moment B in a moment C for the moment D at the moment
68. The trumpet player was certainly loud. But I wasn't bothered by his loudness _D_ by his lack of talent. [trumpet 小号]
A than B more than C as D so much as
当否定词not与so much as出现在同一句子中时,它们的含义是:与其说…不如说…
70. Our journey was slow because the train stopped _D_ at different villages.
A unceasingly B gradually C continuously D continually
unceasingly adv. 不停止地,不休止地; gradually adv. 逐渐地,逐步地;= step by step.
continuously adv. 连续不断地; continually adv. 时断时续地。
-------------------------1994-01-------------------------
43. Frankfurt, Germany, is in one of the most _A_ populated regions of Western Europe.
A densely B vastly C enormously D largely
densely populated 人口分布稠密; sparsely populated 人口分布稀疏。
52. _D_ of the two books holds the opinion that the danger of nuclear war is increasing.
A None B Either C Both D Neither
none表示的是三者或三者以上都不; either表示的是两者之间任意一者。
55. Beethoven is my favorite musician. I regard him as _A_ other musicians.
A superior to B more superior than C more superior to D superior than
注意:具有比较意味的形容词只需要与to搭配,而无须more, than。
58. She is a very _D_ secretary: she never forgets anything or makes a mistake.
A anxious B effective C adequate D efficient
anxious adj. 忧虑的,焦虑的; anxiety n. 焦虑,忧虑; effective adj. 有效的;
take effective measures 采取有效的措施; adequate adj. 充足的,足够的;= surficient.
efficient adj. 效率高的,能胜任的。
64. The computer has brought about surprising technological changes _B_ we organize and produce information.
A in a way B in the way C in that way D in no way
in the way 引导句子时表示“在...方面”。
170. Please move this chair, it is _A_.
A in the way B on the way C in a way D by the way
in the way在没有引导句子时表示“挡路的,妨碍某人的”。
67. In Australia the Asians make their influence _C_ in businesses large and small.
A feeling B feel C felt D to be felt
考试中常见的几个使役动词:make, get, keep, leave.
考试中的形式:使役动词 + sb.(sth.) + ___ 此时空格处应填分词
具体是要填现在还是过去分词由空格前的sb.(sth.)决定,
如果它是动作的发出者则填现在分词,如果它是动作的承受者则填过去分词。
-------------------------1999-06-------------------------
41. He came back late, _B_ which time all the guests had already left.
A after B by C at D during
介词by引导时间状语时一定与完成时态搭配。
45. His remarks left me _D_ about his real purpose.
A wondered B wonder C to wonder D wondering
49. Although they plant trees in this area every year, the tops of some hills are still _D_.
A blank B hollow C vacant D bare
blank adj. 空白的(因为没写字而空白); hollow adj. 空心的,中空的;
bare adj. 光突突的(山上没有树和草);没带首饰的; bald adj. 秃顶的。
50. Being a pop star can be quite a hard life, with a lot of travelling _D_ heavy schedules.
A with regard to B as to C in relation to D owing to
owning to = due to 因为。
52. William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, _C_ defended the right of every citizen to freedom of choice in religion.
A peculiarly B indifferently C vigorously D inevitably
peculiar adj. 奇特的; indifferently adv. 冷漠地,不积极地;
vigorously adv. 强有力的,强劲有力的; inevitably adv. 不可避免地,必然地。
60. We have been told that under no circumstances _A_ the telephone in the office for personal affairs.
A may we use B we may use C we could use D did we use
61. In previous times, then fresh meat was in short _D_, pigeons were kept by many households as a source of food. [in short supply 供应不足]
A store B provision C reserve D supply
in previous times 从前; fresh water 淡水; fresh meat 鲜肉; dove n. 鸽子;
bean curd 豆腐; Bible 圣经; bible 具有权威性的书; God 上帝; god 神。
62. As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, I have directed that all measures _C_ for our defense.
A had been taken B would be taken C be taken D to be taken
以下几个表示“指挥,命令”的动词:order, command, direct.
在引导宾语从句时从句要用“(should) + 动词原形”来体现虚拟语气。
63. A thief who broke into a church was caught because traces of wax, found on his clothes, _A_ from the sort of candles used only in churches.
A had come B coming C come D that came
65. I was _B_ the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived.
A to B on C at D in
to the point of 到了…程度; on the point of doing sth. 正要做某事情;
at the point of 在某点上; when除了表示“当…时候”外,还可以表示“恰在此时”或“刚…就…”
68. The project _C_ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users.
A accomplished B being accomplished
C to be accomplished D having been accomplished
69. _C_ evidence that language-acquiring ability must be stimulated.
A If being B It is C There is D There being
evidence表示“证据”,最大的特点是后面经常带同位语从句说明证据的内容。
language-acquiring ability 语言习得能力。 evidence不用在“it is …”这种结构当中。
64. After the guests left, she spent half an hour _C_ the sitting-room[客厅].
A ordering B arranging C tidying up D clearing away
order vt. 命令;订购;整理,使有条理性; order one's thoughts 整理思路,整理思绪;
arrange v. 布置,安排; tidy up 整理,使整洁(后面通常加某个房间);
clear away 把…清除掉。
67. A lorry[卡车] _A_ Jane's cat and sped away.
A ran over B ran into C ran through D ran down
run over 撞倒并碾过; run into 不期然地遇到; run through 贯穿(多用于抽象事物);
run down 贬低; run down one's opinion.
70. Those gifts of rare books that were given to us were deeply _A_.
A appreciated B approved C appealed D applied
rare books 珍藏本的书籍; appreciate 重视,欣赏,感激; approve 批准,通过,赞成;
approve of 赞成,满意; apply 应用,运用;
appeal 呼吁(表示此意义时它经常于for搭配);申诉,上诉(表示此意义时它要于to搭配)。
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15. Will you _C_ coming to dinner with me?
A have the pleasure of B give the pleasure in
C do me the pleasure of D take pleasure in
pleasure n. 荣幸; 第二选项的正确形式应为:give me the pleasure of
C选项也可写为:do me the favor(favour) of
18. _C_ Goul had said it, he knew what a mistake he had made.
A at once B No sooner C The moment D Hardly
以下几个引导词都可以表示“一…就…”:as soon as, the instant, the moment.
25. Norin received a bad wound _B_ the leg when he was shot at.
A on B in C at D of
表示身体某一部位受伤用介词in。 hit sb. in the face 打某人一个耳光。
28. Cork was angry; _D_ he listened to me.
A and B but C so D nevertheless
cork n. 软木塞。 nevertheless conj. 尽管如此。
34. That _A_ instrument can record even very slightly changes.
A delicate B feeble C sensible D feasible
instrument n. 仪器,(弹奏的)乐器; delicate instrument 精密仪器。
delicate adj. 精密的,准确的; feeble adj. 软弱的,无力的; sensible adj. 明智的;
sensitive adj. 敏感的; be sensitive to 对…很敏感; feasible adj. 可行的,行得通的。
40. Let’s begin the lesson at the place where we _A_ last time.
A left off B left out C left to D left up
leave off 停止,中断; leave out = omit 遗漏;
43. Education does not _D_ simply _D_ learning a lot of facts.
A consist; of B consist; from C consist; for D consist; in
consist of 包括; consist in(抽象意义的)在于 = lie in在于。
49. There is no tree _A_ bears some fruit.
A but B which C that D unless
but用在否定句中并且后面引导一个句子时相当于“that...not”。
本句可改写为这种形式:There is no tree that does not bears some fruit.
50. “Will you be able to finish the job this week?” “_D_.”
A I don’t know so B I can’t say so C I’m not sure so D I don’t expect so
I don't expect so 恐怕不行。
394. “I hope that John will play basketball tomorrow.” “Yes, I _D_.”
A hope it too B hope too C hope that too D hope so too
395. “I slipped on the stairs. I think my arm is broke.” “Oh, I _D_.”
A do not hope so B do not hope C hope not so D hope not
肯定用:I hope so. 否定用:I hope not.
51. She died when she was ninety, not of old age, but _B_ head injury when she fell down a flight of stairs.
A of B from C with D for
die of 表示因年老,疾病或饥饿而死亡; die from 指因为受伤而死亡。
57. You have no busniess _D_ to me the way you did the other day.
A to be talked B being talked C to talk D talking
have no business doing sth. 没有理由(权利)做某事。
132. _B_ day Bill was starting his motor-bike when his sister Mary came out and asked for a lift. [the other day 几天前]
A Some B The other C Another D On one
65. I’d just as soon _A_ rudely to her.
A you didn’t speak B that you don’t speak
C that you won’t speak D you hadn’t speak
wish, would rather后面加句子,句子谓语动词用一般过去时。
would just as soon的用法与would rather完全相同。
69. Which screw do you want? _A_ will do.
A Any one B Not one C Everyone D Anyone
any one 任何一个(指事物); no one 没有人; everyone 每个人; anyone 任何人。
73. I suppose you’re not serious, _C_?
A don’t you B do I C are you D aren’t you
主、从句整体变反意疑问句时通常都与主句保持一致。
但suppose, think, believe, imagine这四个动词后面加了宾语从句,
然后对整个句子来变反意疑问句时反意疑问句部分与从句保持一致。
82. The chair belongs _B_ the corner.
A to B in C on D with
belong to 属于(表示归属关系); belong in 在…有适当的位置。
94. The terrible noise is _B_ me mad.
A turing B driving C setting D putting
drive sb. mad(crazy) 使某人发疯。
114. We are bound _B_ with difficulties in our English study.
A to have met B to meet C meeting D having met
be bound to do sth. 一定会做某事。
118. Everyone assumed what he said _B_ based on facts.
A is B to be C were D being
assume sb.(sth.)to do sth. 想当然的认为某人(某事物)要做某事。
assume + that引导的从句。
129. The shape of Italy on a map has often been compared _C_ a long Wellington boot.
A as B with C to D against
compare与with搭配,表示将A与B进行比较; compare与to搭配,表示将A比作B。
130. Since everyone would like to find an apartment near the university, there are very few _C_ apartments in the area.
A free B empty C vacant D reserved
vacant adj. 空闲的。
144. I know Jonathan quite well and never doubt _B_ he can do a good job of it.
A whether B that C when D what
doubt + whether引导的从句,怀疑是否… ; doubt + that引导的从句。对...真的有疑虑。
156. Let bygones be bygones. Don’t _D_ so much on the past.
A lie B lay C dwelt D dwell
let bygones be bygones. 让过去的过去吧。 dwell vi. 居住; dwell on 老是想着…
162. Intellect is to the mind _B_ sight is to the body.
A which B what C where D but
what这时连接两个句子,表示“有如”或“就像…一样”。
what只有用在这种“A对于B来说就象C对于D一样”句型当中时。
Air is to man what water is to the fish. 空气对于人类来说就象水对于鱼来说一样重要。
165. His honesty is _D_, nobody can doubt it.
A in question B beside the question C out of the question D without question
in question = under discussion 正在讨论中的; beside the question 离题,与题无关;
out of the question 不可能的; out of question 没有问题的,毫无疑问的;
without question 没有问题的,毫无疑问的 = out of question.
172. Nearly all major cities in the US are crime-ridden. New York is _A_.
A a case in point B a case to point C the case D in the case of
a case in point 有说服力的例子。
185. “Frank is up late working again.”
“This is the third time this week he’s had to study late, _A_?”
A isn’t it B hasn’t it C isn’t he D hasn’t he
这里it是代词,指代前面整句话的内容。
表示“第几次做某事”变成反意疑问句经常用it指代整句话的内容。
252. This is the first time that he has felt really relaxed for months, _B_?
A hasn’t he B isn’t it C isn’t he D hasn’t it
191. A judge must be _B_ when weighing evidence.
A interested B disinterested C uninterested D disconnected
weigh vt. 斟酌,考虑; interested adj. 有兴趣的; disinterested adj. 公正的,无私的;
uninterested adj. 不感兴趣的; disconnected adj. 分离的,不连贯的。
217. Although he sometimes lost his temper, his pupils liked him _D_ for it.
A not so much B not so little C no more D no less
lose one’s temper 发脾气。
222. Wise men seek after truth, _A_ fools desire knowledge.
A whereas B or C as well as D hence
whereas conj. 反之,但是。
239. Water and air are _D_ to living.
A independent B initial C dependent D indispensable
be indispensable to 至关重要的,不可或缺的;
240. This report throws light _B_ the situation.
A in B on C with D to
throw light on 把光投到…上去,(引申)清楚的阐述。
246. _B_ that we will go abroad.
A It’s like B Chances are C The most likely D Chances will be
chances are 很有可能… ; chances were 很有可能…
253. Is there any chance _B_?
A whichever B whatsoever C wherever D whenever
whatsoever经常放在一些名词后面作后置定语,表示“任何的”或“丝毫的”。
whatsoever作后置定语通常放在有any的,或者是否定的句子中。
262. She is so clever as to speak several foreign languages, not to _D_ of English.
A say B tell C read D speak
not speak of 更不用说 = not to mention
270. What he did was _C_ than a practical joke.
A anything else B or else C nothing else D more else
practical joke 恶作剧; nothing else than 只不过,仅仅。
283. I’ll be away for about six months but you can write to me _A_ my brother.
A in care of B by care of C with care of D under care of
in care of 由…转交。 = C/O
284. Correct the errors, _D_, in the sentence.
A if there will be any B if there are some C if they have any D if any
if any是一个口语中经常加的插入语成分,表示“如果说有…的话”。
288. There is no point _C_ in a dangerous place if you can’t do anything _C_ the people who have to stay here.
A remaining … helping B to remain … to help
C in remaining … to help D in remaining … helping
there is no point in doing sth. 做某事也是毫无意义; 这里point表示“作用,用途”。
291. Do most of us seeing people grasp casually the outward features of a face and _D_?
A let it alone B let alone C let well alone D let it go at that
seeing people 视力健全的人; casually 随意地,随便地;
let is go at that表示“不去多操心,不再多说,随它去了”。
316. The policemen went into action _C_ they heard the alarm.
A presently B promptly C directly D quickly
directly adv. 直接的; conj. 一…就… ,一当…时候。
表示“一…就…”的几个短语:as soon as, the instant, the moment, directly.
323. The cat is, _D_, a member of the family.
A as to speak B no wonder C as a fact D so to speak
so to speak 可以这么说。
335. “What can I do for you?” “If you _C_ see Mr. Keller, give him my regards.”
A would B will C should D shall
regard n. 关心,致意,问候,考虑;
356. The Mayor and Corporation of Hamelin were _A_ for some way of ridding the town of rats. [The Mayor and Corporation 市长和市政当局]
A at their wit’s end B at their wits end C in their wit’s end D for their wits end
at one's wit's end 智穷才竭,黔驴技穷。
383. I think your sister is old enough to know _B_ to spend all her money on fancy goods.
A other than B better than C rather than D more than
know better than 明白事理而不至于做…
417. The police looked _B_ the past record of the suspect.
A in B into C for D of
suspect v. 猜疑,怀疑; n. 嫌疑犯。
look for 寻找; look in 顺便看望,顺便拜访; look into 观察,调查。
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