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英美文化背景知识(3)

[日期:2012-07-31]   [字体: ]
Holiday in Britain and the US

Paid Holiday

People in the US get 2 weeks a year paid vacation (holiday) form their job. Most British people have four or five weeks paid holiday a year. Americans often complain that tow weeks is not enough holiday, especially when they hear about the longer holidays that Europeans get. In addition, there are 8 days in each country, which are public holidays (the British call Bank Holiday) and many of these fall on a Monday giving people a long weekend. In Britain, so many people drive to another part of the country, especially the coast, on Bank Holiday weekends that there are serious traffic jams, which may stretch(长达) for many miles.

Popular Holiday Places

With the US, outdoor vacations are popular, for example at the Grand Canyon or Yosemite or Yellowstone or the national parks or forests. Yong people may go walking or camping in the mountains. Many people have capers or small trailer(拖车) in which to travel, or if they are in a car, they may stay at Motels on the journey Disneyland and Disneyworld are also popular and people can to skiing in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Wyoming and Montana.

It is also very common to use vacations to visit relatives who may live in states a long distance away. Some children go to summer camp for a holiday during the summer vacation form school, where they do special activities, such as sports or crafts.

When Americans want a holiday for sun and rest, they usually go to Florida, Hawaii, Mexico or the Caribbean. They may go to Europe for culture, for example, to see art, plays, and places of historic interest.

In Britain, many people like to go to the seaside for holidays. There are places near the sea, such as Blackpool, Scarborough and Bournemouth, where there is plenty to do even if it rains. In a traditional British seaside holiday, the children can watch a Punch and Judy Show, eat candy floss and rock (=sweet) and make sandcastles, while older people can hire a deckchair to sit on the beach. People also like to go to go the country, especially to walk, in places like Scotland, Wales and the Lake District.

When the British go abroad they usually want to go somewhere warm. Spain and 'Spanish islands of Majorca and Ibiza are popular as are other places in southern Europe. For skiing, people often go to the Alps.


Medicine in Britain and American


Medicine in Britain

In Britain there is a National Health Service (NHS) which is paid for by taxes and National Insurance(保险), and in general people do not have to pay for medical treatment. Every person is registered with a doctor in their local area, know as general practitioner or GP. This means that their name is on the GP's list, and they may make an appointment to see the doctor or may call the doctor out to visit them if they are ill. People do sometimes have to pay part of the cost of drugs that the doctor prescribes(开处方). GPs are trained in general medicine but are not specialists in any particular subject. If a patient needs to see a specialist doctor, they must first go to their GP and then the GP will make an appointment(预约) for the patient to see a specialist at a hospital or clinic.

Although everyone in Britain can have free treatment under the National Health Service. It is also possible to have treatment done privately, for which one has to pay, Some people have private health insurance to help them pay for private treatment. Under the NHS, people who need to go to hospital may have to wait for a long time on a waiting list for their treatment. If they pay for the treatment, they will probably get it quickly.

Anyone who is very ill can call an ambulance(救护车) and get taken to hospital for free urgent medical treatment. Ambulances are a free service in Britain.

Medicine in the US

Unlike Britain, the US does not have a national health care service. The government does help pay for some medical care for people who are on low incomes and for old, but most people buy insurance to help pay for medical care. Some people cannot afford insurance but not poor enough to get government help. The cost of medical insurance and the problems of those who can not afford it are an important political subject.

When people are ill, they usually go first to a general practitioner or internist. Unlike in Britain, however, people sometimes go straight to a specialist, without seeing their general practitioner first. Children are usually taken to a pediatrician (a doctor who is a specialist in the treatment of children). As in Britain, if a patient needs to see a specialist doctor, their general doctor will usually give them the name of one.

Doctors don not go to people's homes when they are ill. People always make appointments to see the doctor in the doctor's office. In emergencies(急诊), people call for an ambulance. Hospital must treat all emergency patients, even if the patient does not have medical insurance. The government would then help pay for some of the cost of the medical care.


Social Class in Britain

British society is considered to be divided into three main groups of classes - the Upper Class, the Middle Class, and the Lower or Working Class. This is known as the Class system and it is important to know something about it if you want to understand British people and society. Most British people grow up with a deep knowledge and understanding of the class system even if they are not very conscious(意识到) of it. Most people know which class they belong to by the way they speak, their clothes, their interests or even the type of food they eat.

Social class is not only about behavior and attitudes, For example, although many upper class people are rich and may own a lot of land, having a lot of money does not make a person upper class. It is also important to come from a particular kind of family, have friends who are considered suitable, have been to a certain type of private school and speak with the right kind of accent. There are people who are poor but who do not think of themselves as working class because their family background, education, political opinions, etc. are different to those of most working-class people. Many people do not like the class system but it is impossible to pretend that these differences do not exist or that British people do not sometimes form opinions in this way.
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